116 posts categorized "Reports & Studies" Feed

Report: Patched Macs Still Vulnerable To Firmware Hacks

Apple Inc. logo I've heard numerous times the erroneous assumption by consumers: "Apple-branded devices don't get computer viruses." Well, they do. Ars Technica reported about a particular nasty hack of vulnerabilities in devices' Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI). Never heard of EFI? Well:

"An analysis by security firm Duo Security of more than 73,000 Macs shows that a surprising number remained vulnerable to such attacks even though they received OS updates that were supposed to patch the EFI firmware. On average, 4.2 percent of the Macs analyzed ran EFI versions that were different from what was prescribed by the hardware model and OS version. 47 Mac models remained vulnerable to the original Thunderstrike, and 31 remained vulnerable to Thunderstrike 2. At least 16 models received no EFI updates at all. EFI updates for other models were inconsistently successful, with the 21.5-inch iMac released in late 2015 topping the list, with 43 percent of those sampled running the wrong version."

This is very bad. EFI hacks are particularly effective and nasty because:

"... they give attackers control that starts with the very first instruction a Mac receives... the level of control attackers get far exceeds what they gain by exploiting vulnerabilities in the OS... That means an attacker who compromises a computer's EFI can bypass higher-level security controls, such as those built into the OS or, assuming one is running for extra protection, a virtual machine hypervisor. An EFI infection is also extremely hard to detect and even harder to remedy, as it can survive even after a hard drive is wiped or replaced and a clean version of the OS is installed."

At-risk EFI versions mean that devices running Windows and Linux operating systems are also vulnerable. Reportedly, the exploit requires plenty of computing and technical expertise, so hackers would probably pursue high-value targets (e.g., journalists, attorneys, government officials, contractors with government clearances) first.

The Duo Labs Report (63 pages, Adobe PDF) lists the specific MacBook, MacBookAir, and MacBookPro models at risk. The researchers shared a draft of the report with Apple before publication. The report's "Mitigation" section provides solutions, including but not limited to:

"Always deploy the full update package as released by Apple, do not remove separate packages from the bundle updater... When possible, deploy Combo OS updates instead of Delta updates... As a general rule of thumb, always run the latest version of macOS..."

Scary, huh? The nature of the attack means that hackers probably can disable the anti-virus software on your device(s), and you probably wouldn't know you've been hacked.


What We Know -- And Don't Know -- About Hate Crimes in America

[Editor's Note: today's guest blog post explores the problem of hate crimes. Recent surveys about harassment found that what happens online often doesn't stay online. Hopefully, future reports by ProPublica will explore the linkages. Today's blog post is reprinted with permission.]

By Rachel Glickhouse, ProPublica

"Go home. We need Americans here!" white supremacist Jeremy Joseph Christian yelled at two black women -- one wearing a hijab -- on a train in Portland, Oregon, in May. According to news reports, when several commuters tried to intervene, he went on a rampage, stabbing three people. Two of them died.

If the fatal stabbing was the worst racist attack in Portland this year, it was by no means the only one. In March, Buzzfeed reported on hate incidents in Oregon and the state's long history as a haven for white supremacists. Some of the incidents they found were gathered by Documenting Hate, a collaborative journalism project we launched earlier this year.

Documenting Hate is an attempt to overcome the inadequate data collection on hate crimes and bias incidents in America. We've been compiling incident reports from civil-rights groups, as well as news reports, social media and law enforcement records. We've also asked people to tell us their personal stories of witnessing or being the victim of hate.

It's been about six months since the project launched. Since then, we've been joined by more than 100 newsrooms around the country. Together, we're verifying the incidents that have been reported to us -- and telling people's stories.

We've received thousands of reports, with more coming every day. They come from cities big and small, and from states blue and red. People have reported hate incidents from every part of their communities: in schools, on the road, at private businesses, in the workplace. ProPublica and our partners have produced more than 50 stories using the tips from the database, from New York to Seattle, Minneapolis to Phoenix. Some examples:

Univision, HuffPost, and The New York Times opinion section identified a common thread in the reports we've received in which people of color are harassed "Go back to your country." This type of harassment affects both immigrants and U.S. citizens alike, reporters found.

Several stories published by our partners focused on racial harassment on public transportation, using tips to illustrate something officials were also seeing. The New York City Commission on Human Rights observed a 480 percent increase in claims of discriminatory harassment between 2015 and 2016, according to The New York Times Opinion section. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority recorded 24 cases of offensive graffiti through April, compared to 35 in all of last year, the Boston Globe found. Univision covered multiple incidents involving Latinos targeted in incidents on the New York City subway.

Combing through our database, Buzzfeed discovered there were dozens of reported incidents in K-12 schools in which students cited President Donald Trump's name or slogans to harass minority classmates. This echoed a pattern Univision had reported on: In November, the Teaching Tolerance project at the Southern Poverty Law Center received more than 10,000 responses to an educator survey indicating an uptick in anti-Semitic, anti-Muslim and anti-immigrant activity in schools.

Our local partners reported on how hate incidents affect communities across the country: anti-Semitic graffiti in Phoenix, Islamophobia in Minneapolis, racist vandalism and homophobic threats in Seattle, white supremacist activity at a California university, racist harassment and vandalism in Boston, racism in the workplace in New Orleans, and hate incidents throughout Florida.

There are a few questions for which answers continue to elude us: How many hate crimes happen each year, and why is the record keeping so inadequate?

The FBI, which is required to track hate crimes, counts between 5,000 and 6,000 of them annually. But the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimates the total is closer to 250,000. One explanation for the gap is that many victims -- more than half, according to a recent estimate -- don't report what happened to them to police.

Even if they do, law enforcement agencies aren't all required to report to the FBI, meaning their reports might never make it into the national tally. The federal government is hardly a model of best practices; many federal agencies don't report their data, either -- even though they're legally required to do so.

We'll spend the next six months continuing to tackle these questions and more. And we and our partners will keep working our way through the tips in our database, telling people's stories and doing our best to understand what's happening.

There are ways that you can help us move the project forward:

ProPublica is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom. Sign up for their newsletter.


'If You Hemorrhage, Don't Clean Up': Advice From Mothers Who Almost Died

[Editor's note: today's guest post is part of the ongoing "Lost Mothers" investigation by ProPublica because, "The U.S. has the highest rate of deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth in the developed world. Half of the deaths are preventable, victimizing women from a variety of races, backgrounds, educations and income levels." It is reprinted with permission.]

by Adriana Gallardo and Nina Martin, ProPublica, and Renee Montagne, NPR

Four days after Marie McCausland delivered her first child in May, she knew something was very wrong. She had intense pain in her upper chest, her blood pressure was rising, and she was so swollen that she barely recognized herself in the mirror. As she curled up in bed that evening, a scary thought flickered through her exhausted brain: "If I go to sleep right now, I don't know if I'm gonna be waking up."

What she didn't have was good information about what might be wrong. The discharge materials the hospital sent her home with were vague and confusing -- "really quite useless," she said. Then she remembered a ProPublica/NPR story she'd recently read about a New Jersey nurse who died soon after childbirth. Lauren Bloomstein had developed severe preeclampsia, a dangerous type of hypertension that often happens during the second half of her pregnancy. But it can also emerge after the baby is delivered, when it is often overlooked -- accounting for dozens of maternal deaths a year. McCausland realized that she might have preeclampsia, too.

The 27-year-old molecular virologist and her husband bundled up their newborn son and raced to the nearest emergency room in Cleveland. But the ER doctor told her that she was feeling normal postpartum symptoms, she said. Even as her blood pressure hovered at perilous heights, he wanted to send her home. Several hours passed before he consulted with an OB-GYN at another hospital and McCausland's severe preeclampsia was treated with magnesium sulfate to prevent seizures. Without Bloomstein's story as a warning, McCausland doubts she would have recognized her symptoms or persisted in the face of the ER doctor's dismissiveness. "I had just come home with the baby and really didn't want to go back to the hospital. I think I probably would have just wrote it off." In that case, she added, "I don't know if I'd be here. I really don't."

McCausland's experience is far from unique. In the months since ProPublica and NPR launched our project about maternal deaths and near-deaths in the U.S., we've heard from 3,100 women who endured life-threatening pregnancy and childbirth complications, often suffering long-lasting physical and emotional effects. (Tell us your story.)

The same themes that run though McCausland's story echo through many of these survivors' recollections. They frequently told us they knew little to nothing beforehand about the complications that nearly killed them. Even when the women were convinced something was terribly amiss, doctors and nurses were sometimes slow to believe them. Mothers especially lacked information about risks in the postpartum period, when medical care is often disjointed or difficult to access and the baby is the focus of attention. "Every single nurse, pediatrician, and lactation consultant dismissed my concerns as hormones and anxiety," wrote Emily McLaughlin, who suffered a stroke and other complications after giving birth in Connecticut in 2015.

These survivors make up an important, and largely untapped, source of knowledge about the dangers that expectant and new mothers may face -- and how to avoid disaster. Every day in the U.S., two to three women die from pregnancy- or childbirth-related causes, including preeclampsia, hemorrhage, infection, blood clots and cardiac problems -- the highest rate of maternal mortality among wealthy nations. As many as 60 percent of these deaths are preventable, a new report suggests; more than half occur after delivery. (See our story on the lost mothers of 2016.) Each day, another 175 women suffer complications severe enough to require major medical intervention such as massive transfusions, emergency surgery or admission to an intensive care unit -- equivalent to about 65,000 close calls annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Hospitals, medical organizations and maternal safety groups are introducing a host of initiatives aimed at educating expectant and new mothers and improving how providers respond to emergencies. But as McCausland's experience illustrates, self-advocacy is also critically important.

We asked survivors: What can people do to ensure that what happened to Lauren Bloomstein doesn't happen to them or their loved ones? How can they help prevent situations like Marie McCausland's from spiraling out of control? What do they wish they had known ahead of their severe complications? What made a difference in their recovery? How did they get medical professionals to listen? Here is a selection of their insights, in their own words.

Choosing a Provider

"A lot of data on specific doctors and hospitals can be found publicly. Knowing how your physician and hospital rates as compared to others (cesarean rates, infection rates, readmission rates) can give you valuable insight into how they perform. 'Liking' your doctor as a person is nice, but not nearly as important as their and their facility's culture and track record."

-- Kristen Terlizzi, 35, survivor of placenta accreta (a disorder in which the placenta grows into or through the uterine wall) in 2014 and cofounder of the National Accreta Foundation

"Key pieces of information every woman should know before choosing a hospital are: What are their safety protocols for adverse maternal events? No one likes to think about this while pregnant, and providers will probably tell you that it's unlikely to happen. But it does happen and it's good to know that the hospital and providers have practiced for such scenarios and have proper protocols in place."

-- Marianne Drexler, 39, survived a hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy in 2014

"Ask your doctors if they have ever experienced a case of an amniotic fluid embolism [an abnormal response to amniotic fluid entering the mother's bloodstream] or other severe event themselves. If a birthing center is your choice, discuss what happens in an emergency -- how far away is the closest hospital with an ICU? Because a lot of hospitals don't have them. Another thing many women don't realize is that not every hospital has an obstetrician there 24/7. Ask your doctors: If they're not able to be there the whole time you're in labor, will there be another ob/gyn on site 24 hours a day if something goes wrong?"

-- Miranda Klassen, 41, survivor of amniotic fluid embolism in 2008 and founder/executive director of the Amniotic Fluid Embolism Foundation

"While my doctor was amazing, we live in a smaller town and they don't carry enough blood/platelets on hand for very emergent situations. They have patients shipped to larger hospitals when they need more care. Had I been aware of that we would have decided to deliver at a larger hospital so in case something happened to me or our daughter we wouldn't be separated, which we were when I was life-flighted out."

-- Kristina Landrus, 26, survived a hemorrhage in 2013

"My best advice for getting a medical professional to listen is to keep searching for one that is willing to listen. Because of my insurance and personal circumstances at the time I felt I had no option but to take whoever my providers [assigned] me, despite several red flags even before my delivery. I was not aware of my right to change providers until it was too late."

-- Joy Huff, 39, survived a blood infection in 2013

Preparing for an Emergency

"A conversation about possible things that could go wrong is prudent to have with your doctor or in one of these childbirth classes. I don't think that it needs to be done in a way to terrify the new parents, but as a way to provide knowledge. The pregnant woman should be taught warning signs, and know when to speak up so that she can be treated as quickly and accurately as possible."

-- Susan Lewis, 33, survived multiple blood clots and severe hemorrhage in 2016

"Always have somebody with you in a medical setting to ask the questions you might not think of and to advocate on your behalf if your ability to communicate is compromised by being in poor health. ... And get emotional support to steel you against the naysayers. It may feel really unnatural or difficult to push back [against doctors and nurses]. Online forums and Facebook groups can be helpful to ensure you're not losing your mind."

-- Eleni Tsigas, survivor of preeclampsia in 1998 and 1999 and executive director of the Preeclampsia Foundation

"Know your rights. Know what kind of decisions you might have to make and what you want to do before you go. Doctors and nurses are there to make quick decisions, they're not worried about how you will feel about it afterward. They are worried about a lawsuit, whether they can get you stable quickly so they can move on. I'm not saying they are heartless, far from it. My mother is a nurse, I know what sort of heart goes into that profession. But they have a lot to do and a lot to worry about, your feelings are not at the top of that list. At least not as far as they are concerned in the moment."

-- Carrie Anthony, 36, survived two pregnancies with placenta accreta and hemorrhage in 2008 and 2015

"It isn't just important to know how you feel about blood transfusions and life-saving measures 2014 you have to communicate these things to your spouse or family member. I was given six blood transfusions, but I was barely conscious when asked if I wanted them. Of course, I wanted any life-saving measures, but my husband should have been consulted, given that I was not of a clear mind."

-- Rachel Stuhler, 36, survived a hemorrhage in 2017

"In case you ever are unable to respond, someone needs to step in and be your voice! Know as much thorough medical history as possible, and let your spouse or support person know [in depth] your history as well."

-- Kristina Landrus

"Also be sure your spouse and your other family members, like your parents or siblings, are on the same page about your care. And if you aren't married, who will be making the decisions on your behalf? You should put things in order, designate the person who will be the decision maker, and give that person power of attorney. Other important things to have are a medical directive or a living will 2014 be sure to bring a copy with you to the hospital. I also recommend packing a journal to record everything that happens."

-- Miranda Klassen

"Make a list of your questions and make sure you get the full answer. I went to every appointment the second time around with a notebook. I would apologize for being 'that patient,' but I had been through this before and I wasn't going to be confused again. I wanted to know everything. Honestly, it was as harmful as it was helpful. I knew what I was getting into, which made it much scarier. The first time, my ignorance was bliss. I didn't realize I almost died until two weeks after I had left the hospital. I didn't even start researching what had happen to me until months later. The second time I was an advocate for myself. Medical journals and support groups were a part of every single visit. And thankfully, I was in good hands."

-- Carrie Anthony

"Write down what each specialty says to you. When I was hospitalized for six weeks prior to giving birth, I was visited 2-3 times a week by someone from each department that would be involved in my life-saving surgery. This means that I saw someone from the neonatal intensive care unit as well as reps from gynecologic oncology, maternal fetal medicine, interventional radiology and anesthesiology. They paraded in on a schedule, checked up on me, asked if I had any questions. I always did, but I regret not writing down what each said each time (along with names!). I got so many different answers regarding how I would be anesthetized, and on the day it all had to happen in an emergency, there were disagreements above me in the OR. between the specialists. It was like children arguing on a playground and my life was in danger. Had I kept a more vigilant record of what each specialty reported to me, perhaps prior to the day I could have confronted each with the details that weren't matching up."

-- Megan Moody, 36, survived placenta percreta (when the placenta penetrates through the uterine wall) in 2016

"People should know that they have a right to ask for more time with the doctor or more follow up if they feel something is not right. The ob-gyns (at least in Pennsylvania) are so busy and sometimes appointments are quite quick and rushed. Make the doctors slow down and take the time with you."

-- Dani Leiman, 37, survived HELLP syndrome (a particularly dangerous variant of preeclampsia) in 2011

"You have a legal right to your medical records throughout pregnancy and anytime afterwards. Get a copy of your lab results each time blood is drawn, and a copy of your prenatal and hospital reports. Ask about concerning or unclear results."

-- Eleni Tsigas

Getting Your Provider to Listen

"Understand the system. Ask a nurse or a trusted loved one in the 'industry' how it all works. I've found that medical professionals are more likely to listen to you if you demonstrate an understanding of their roles and the kind of questions they can/cannot answer. Know your 'silos.' Don't ask an anesthesiologist how they plan on stitching up your cervix. Specialists are often incredibly impatient. You need to get the details out of them regarding their very specific roles."

-- Megan Moody

"Let doctors know you care about your health and safety as much as they do. Tell them you want to be a partner in your health care. Do not act as an adversary to your doctor."

-- Tricia Fitzgerald, 40, survived a hemorrhage caused by severe preeclampsia in 2014

"First you have to be armed with concrete knowledge with examples about your illness and have a firm attitude. This is why it is important to know your body. Do your research before your appointment, but make it personal. Do not present your case as if you just went on WebMD for the information. Create a log of your health activities. This log should contain all illnesses you are concerned about, when they occurred and how did you feel. Have your questions and concerns written down. You should always carry a list of your medications, dosage, and milligrams. Include any side effects. Ask concrete questions and have the doctors present their findings to you in a language you can understand. If you do not agree [with what one doctor tells you], ask another doctor. Remember, knowledge is power and you must have that power."

-- Anner Porter, 55, survivor of peripartum cardiomyopathy in 1992 and founder of the advocacy organization Fight PPCM

"If your provider tells you, 'You are pregnant. What you're experiencing is normal,' remember -- that may be true. [But it's also true] that preeclampsia can mimic many normal symptoms of pregnancy. Ask, 'What else could this be?' Expect a thoughtful answer that includes consideration of 2018differential diagnoses' -- in other words, other conditions that could be causing the same symptoms."

-- Eleni Tsigas

"They only listen if the pain is a 10 or higher. Most of us don't understand what a 10 is. I'd always imagined a 10 would feel like having a limb blown off in combat. When asked to evaluate your pain on a scale of 1 to 10, when you are in your most vulnerable moment, it is very hard to assess this logically, for you and for your partner witnessing your pain. I later saw a pain chart with pictures. A 10 was demonstrated with an illustration of a crying face. You may not actually be shedding tears, but you are most likely crying on the inside in pain, so I suggest to always say a 10. My pain from the brain hemorrhage was probably a 100, but I'm not sure if I even said 10 at the time."

-- Emily McLaughlin, 34, survived a postpartum stroke in 2015

"Crying! I'm only slightly kidding. I truly think the only way to get them to listen is to be adamant and don't back down. I had a situation where I felt no one was paying attention to me, and I cried out of frustration over the phone. Then they listened to me and snapped into action."

-- Dani Leiman

"So many women do speak up about the strange pain they have, and a nurse may brush it off as normal without consulting a doctor and running any tests. Be annoying if you must, this is your life. ... Thankfully, I never had to be so assertive. I owe my life to the team of doctors and nurses who acted swiftly and accurately, and I am eternally grateful."

-- Susan Lewis

"If you have a hemorrhage, don't clean up after yourself! Make sure the doctor is fully aware of how much blood you are losing. I had a very nice nurse who was helping to keep me clean and helping to change my (rapidly filling) pads. If the doctor had seen the pools of blood himself, rather than just being told about them, he might not have been so quick to dismiss me."

-- Valerie Bradford, 30, survived hemorrhage in 2016

Paying Attention to Your Symptoms

"I had heard of preeclampsia but I was naïve. [I believed] that it was something women developed who didn't watch what they ate and didn't focus on good health prior and/or during pregnancy. I was in great health and shape prior to getting pregnant, during my pregnancy I continued to make good food choices and worked out up until 36 hours before the baby had to be taken. I gained healthy weight and kept my BMI at an optimum number. I thought due to my good health, I was not susceptible to anything and my labor would be easy. So although I had felt bad for 1 1/2 weeks, I chalked it up to the fact that I was almost 8 months into this pregnancy, so you're not supposed to feel great. 2026 I walked into my doctor's office that Friday and not one hour later I was in an emergency C-section delivering a baby. I had to fully be put under due to the severity of the HELLP, so I didn't wake up until the next day."

-- Kelli Davis, 31, survived HELLP syndrome in 2016

"Understand that severe, sustained pain is not normal. So many people told me that the final trimester of pregnancy is sooo uncomfortable. It was my first pregnancy, I have a generally high threshold for pain, and my son was breech so I thought his head was causing bad pain under my ribs [when it was really epigastric pain from the HELLP syndrome]. I kept thinking it was normal to be in pain and I let it go until it was almost too late."

-- Dani Leiman

"I wish I would have known what high blood pressure numbers were. I had a pharmacist take my blood pressure at a pharmacy and let me walk out the door with a blood pressure of 210/102. She acted like it was no big deal ('it's a little high'), and so I believed her. Even after telling my husband, we really thought nothing of it."

-- Melissa McFadden, 36, survived preeclampsia in 2013

"Know the way your blood pressure should be taken. And ask for the results. Politely challenge the technician or nurse if it's not being done correctly or if they suggest 'changing positions to get a lower reading.' Very high blood pressure (anything over 160/110) is a 'hypertensive crisis' and requires immediate intervention."

-- Eleni Tsigas

"Please ask for a heart monitor for yourself while in labor, not just for the baby. I think if I had one on, seconds or minutes could have been erased from reaction time by the nurses. They were alerted to an issue because the baby's heart stopped during labor, and while the nurse was checking that machine, my husband noticed I was also non-responsive. That's when everything happened (cardiac arrest due to AFE)."

-- Kristy Kummer-Pred, 44, survived amniotic fluid embolism and cardiac arrest in 2012

After the Delivery

"My swelling in my hands and feet never went away. My uterus hadn't shrunk. I wasn't bleeding that bad, but there was a strange odor to it. My breasts were swollen and my milk wasn't coming in. I was misdiagnosed with mastitis [a painful inflammation of the breast tissue that sometimes occurs when milk ducts become plugged and engorged]. The real problem was that I still had pieces of placenta inside my uterus. Know that your placenta should not come out in multiple pieces. It should come out in one piece. If it is broken apart, demand an ultrasound to ensure the doctors got it all. If you have flu-like symptoms, demand to be seen by a doctor. If you don't like your doctor, demand another one."

-- Brandi Miller, 32, survived placenta accreta and hemorrhage in 2015

"There is a period in the days and weeks after delivery where your blood pressure can escalate and you can have a seizure, stroke, or heart attack, even well after a healthy birth. You should take your own blood pressure at home if your doctor doesn't tell you to. ... Unfortunately, I went home from [all my postpartum] appointments with my blood pressure so high that I started having a brain hemorrhage. Not one single person ever thought of taking my blood pressure when I was complaining about my discomfort and showing telltale warning signs of [preeclampsia]."

-- Emily McLaughlin

"The ER doctor that I had was not treating me as a postpartum case. He was just thinking of me as a 27-year-old with high blood pressure. I think, if you have the opportunity, the ideal thing would be to go back to the same hospital where you had your baby, because they have a labor and delivery unit and they have your records. But if the closest emergency room isn't at the hospital where you delivered, then you have to be more vigilant. Make sure they know you just gave birth. If you know something is wrong with you, don't take no for an answer. Just keep saying, 'I think this is something serious' and don't let them discharge you, especially if it's someone who isn't familiar with pregnant women."

-- Marie McCausland

"The postpartum period is when a lot of pregnancy-related heart problems like cardiomyopathy emerge. If there is still difficulty breathing, fluid buildup in ankles, shortness of breath and you are unable to lie flat on your back, go see a cardiologist ASAP. If you have to go to an emergency room, request to have the following tests performed: echocardiogram (echo) test, ejection fraction test, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP), EKG test and chest x-ray test. These tests will determine if your heart is failing and will save your life."

-- Anner Porter

"Rest as much as possible -- for as long as possible. Being in too big a rush to get 'back to normal' can exacerbate postpartum health risks. Things that are not normal: heavy bleeding longer than 6 weeks, or bleeding that stops and starts again, not producing milk, fevers, severe pain (especially around incision sites), excessive fatigue, and anxiety/depression. If you don't feel like yourself, get help."

-- Amy Barron Smolinski, 37, a survivor of preeclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage and other complications in three pregnancies in 2006, 2011 and 2012 and executive director of Mom2Mom Global, a breastfeeding support group

"Know that your preexisting health conditions may be impacted by having a baby (hormone changes, sleep deprivation, stress). Record your health and your baby's in a journal or app to track any changes. Reach out to the nurse or doctor when there are noticeable changes that you have tracked."

-- Noelle Garcia, 33, survived placental abruption (placenta separating from the uterine wall during pregnancy) in 2007

"If your hospital discharges you on tons of Motrin or pain killers, be aware that this can mask the warning signs of headache, which is sometimes the only warning sign of preeclampsia coming on postpartum."

-- Emily McLaughlin

Grappling With the Emotional Fallout

"I wish I had known that postpartum PTSD was possible. Most people associate PTSD with the effects of war, but I was diagnosed with PTSD after my traumatic birth and near-death experience. Almost 6 years later, I still experience symptoms sporadically."

-- Meagan Raymer, 31, survived severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome in 2011

"I recommend therapy with a female therapist specializing in trauma. Honestly, I avoided it for 8 months. I was then in therapy for 12 months. I still have ongoing anxiety... but I would be in a very bad place (potentially depression and self-harm due to self-blame) were it not for therapy. It was so hard to admit [what was happening]. I started to get a suspicion when I heard an NPR story about a veteran with PTSD. I thought... that sounds like me. And I started Googling."

-- Jessica Rae Hoffman, 28, survived severe sepsis and other complications in 2015

"The emotional constructs our society puts around pregnancy and childbirth make the ideas of severe injury and death taboo. Childbirth is a messy, traumatic experience. ... Many women don't seek care even when they instinctively believe something is wrong because they're supposed to 'be happy.' Awareness and transparency are so important."

-- Leah Soule, 33, survived a hemorrhage in 2015

"Having an incredible support network made the greatest impact with my near-death experience, but my family and friends needed their own support as they coped. My mom didn't leave my side, but she also had a team of friends supporting her so that she could let her guard down and cry when she needed to do so. My husband was at my bedside or with the baby constantly that first week, but he was also suffering from the trauma of everything and was having a really hard time coping and needed to leave the hospital environment. My best friend is an ICU nurse and quickly became the person everyone asked clarifying questions, but she didn't want to be a nurse in that moment but rather someone who was scared for her friend."

-- Susan Lewis

"I wish I had understood how significant the impact was on my husband. Emotionally, the experience was much more difficult and long-lasting for him than for me, and it continued to affect his relationship with both me and our baby for quite a while, at a time when I didn't think it was a thing at all."

-- Elizabeth Venstra, 44, survived HELLP syndrome in 2014

"I would suggest establishing yourself ahead of time with a doula or midwife that can make postpartum visits to your home, which can promote health even if everything goes smoothly. Many communities have those services available if you can't afford them. [A doula] wasn't covered through our insurance, but the social worker at the hospital arranged for someone paid for by [San Diego County] to come and do several checks on me and my son, which was very reassuring to both my husband and me."

-- Miranda Klassen

"If you're given a diagnosis of a life-threatening pregnancy complication, line up a therapist immediately so can start getting the support you need as soon as you give birth. Don't wait until your six-week [postpartum] appointment when they do a depression screen and you realize you're not coping well. You'll have to wait at least another week for the appointment to be made. Why not have that in place? I wish I did."

-- Megan Moody

"Don't assume everyone gets it. Don't assume everyone wants to hear it. My story is scary. Some soon-to-be moms have looked horrified by my story. Some already moms have been scared away by it. Most people are happy to listen, like to be informed. But some do not. Some people are happier thinking it's all going to be ok, not me, I'll be fine. They should at least know, but that's their choice. You can't force people to open their eyes. Be there. Offer help. But don't force it."

-- Carrie Anthony

Other Resources

  • The Leapfrog Group provides performance data on more than 1,800 hospitals and publishes an annual Maternity Care Report. Consumer Reports offers C-section data from more than 1,300 hospitals by ZIP code.
  • The California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative's "toolkits" of protocols to treat life-threatening obstetric complications include infographics, checklists and lengthy backup materials but require (free) registration for access. The Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health's "bundles" offer similar information in a condensed, easily downloadable form.
  • The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN)'s Health4Mom site has a "Save Your Life" campaign, including a one-page checklist, to help new mothers recognize post-birth warning signs.
  • Childbirth Connections provides evidence-based information on maternity care. The Preeclampsia Foundation's "Wonder Woman" posts (here and here) put the U.S. maternal mortality numbers in context and offer more strategies for self-advocacy.
  • Postpartum Support International offers many resources for women suffering from pregnancy-related depression, anxiety and mood disorders.
  • Facebook is a gathering place for thousands of women who've experienced life-threatening complications, but many groups are condition-specific and/or closed to non-survivors. One open group worth checking out: The Unexpected Project.
  • Social justice groups are also becoming active around the issue of maternal deaths and near-deaths, with a focus on why African-American women are disproportionately affected. They include the Black Mamas Matter Alliance and Moms Rising.

Correction, August 4, 2017: In an earlier version of this story, a quote was incorrectly attributed to Kristy Kummer-Pred. It has been deleted.

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Study: Police Officers Talk More Respectfully To White Residents Than Non-White Residents

Researchers analyzed the language recorded by body cameras during police stops, and concluded that police officers talk more respectfully to White residents than non-White residents. The study, published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, included 183 hours of body camera footage taken during 981 routine traffic stops in April 2014 by 245 different officers in the Oakland Police Department.

The researchers found:

"Police officers speak significantly less respectfully to black than to white community members in everyday traffic stops, even after controlling for officer race, infraction severity, stop location, and stop outcome. This paper presents a systematic analysis of officer body-worn camera footage, using computational linguistic techniques to automatically measure the respect level that officers display to community members. This work demonstrates that body camera footage can be used as a rich source of data rather than merely archival evidence, and paves the way for developing powerful language-based tools for studying and potentially improving police–community relations. "

The study included random selections of 312 utterances spoken to black residents and 102 utterances spoken to white residents. Next, 10 volunteers rated each interaction without knowing the names, races, or identifying information of the police officers. Then, the researchers used a computer model to analyze the ratings based upon scientific literature about respect.

Why this study is important:

"Despite the rapid proliferation of body-worn cameras, no law enforcement agency has systematically analyzed the massive amounts of footage these cameras produce. Instead, the public and agencies alike tend to focus on the fraction of videos involving high-profile incidents, using footage as evidence of innocence or guilt in individual encounters... Previous research on police–community interactions has relied on citizens’ recollection of past interactions or researcher observation of officer behavior to assess procedural fairness. Although these methods are invaluable, they offer an indirect view of officer behavior and are limited to a small number of interactions...

Key findings from the full report:

"... white community members are 57% more likely to hear an officer say one of the most respectful utterances in our dataset, whereas black community members are 61% more likely to hear an officer say one of the least respectful utterances in our dataset. (Here we define the top 10% of utterances to be most respectful and the bottom 10% to be least respectful.) This work demonstrates the power of body camera footage as an important source of data, not just as evidence, addressing limitations with methodologies that rely on citizens’ recollection of past interactions..."

Perhaps, most importantly (bold emphasis added):

"The racial disparities in officer respect are clear and consistent, yet the causes of these disparities are less clear. It is certainly possible that some of these disparities are prompted by the language and behavior of the community members themselves, particularly as historical tensions in Oakland and preexisting beliefs about the legitimacy of the police may induce fear, anger, or stereotype threat. However, community member speech cannot be the sole cause of these disparities... We observe racial disparities in officer respect even in police utterances from the initial 5% of an interaction, suggesting that officers speak differently to community members of different races even before the driver has had the opportunity to say much at all."

"Regardless of cause, we have found that police officers’ interactions with blacks tend to be more fraught, not only in terms of disproportionate outcomes (as previous work has shown) but also interpersonally, even when no arrest is made and no use of force occurs. These disparities could have adverse downstream effects, as experiences of respect or disrespect in personal interactions with police officers play a central role in community members’ judgments of how procedurally fair the police are as an institution, as well as the community’s willingness to support or cooperate with the police."

The findings indicate training opportunities for law enforcement, and apply only to the Oakland, California police department. Additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about other police departments. CNN interviewed Rob Voigt, the lead author of the study at Stanford University:

"We're also hoping it inspires police departments to consider cooperating with researchers more. And facilitating this kind of analysis of body camera footage will help police departments improve their relationship with the community, and it will give them techniques for better communication... When people feel they're respected by the police, they are more likely to trust the police, they are more likely to cooperate with the police, and so on and so forth. So we have reason to expect that these differences that we find have real-world effects."

I look forward to future studies. What are your opinions?


The Top Complaints About Financial Services. One Complaint Type Grew 325 Percent

Logo for Consumer Financial Protection Bureau After encountering unresolved issues with financial services, many consumers file complaints with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). After each complain, the CFP works hard to get each consumer a reply within 15 days. This process allows the CFPB to track which issues affect most consumers, and to identify emerging problems.

According to its April Monthly Complaint Report, debt collection issues generated the most complaints on average, and complaints about student loans grew the fastest:

"As of April 1, 2017, the CFPB has handled approximately 1,163,200 complaints, including approximately 28,000 complaints in March 2017... Student loan complaints showed the greatest percentage increase from January - March 2016 (773 complaints) to January - March 2017 (3,284 complaints), representing about a 325 percent increase. Part of this year-to-year increase can be attributed to the CFPB updating its student loan complaint form to accept complaints about Federal student loan servicing in late February 2016. The CFPB also initiated an enforcement action against a student loan servicer during this time period."

CFPB Monthly Compalint Report. April, 2017. Table 1. Click to view larger version

The top five categories of complaints about during March, 2017:

  1. Debt collection: 8,711
  2. Credit reporting: 5,498
  3. Mortgages: 3,965
  4. Credit cards: 2,522
  5. Bank account or service: 2,476

Also during March: debt collection complaints represented about 31 percent of complaints; debt collection, credit reporting and mortgage were the top three most-complained-about consumer financial products and services. Together, these three categories represented 65 percent of complaints during March.

The top five categories of complaints since the CFPB began:

  1. Debt collection: 316,810
  2. Mortgages: 272,153
  3. Credit reporting: 195,826
  4. Credit cards: 118,732
  5. Bank account or service: 115,055

The CFPB began accepting complaints for different products and services at different times:

There were regional differences in complaint volume:

"Montana (54 percent), Georgia (46 percent), and Wyoming (45 percent) experienced the greatest complaint volume percentage increase from January - March 2016 to January - March 2017. New Mexico (-20 percent), Iowa (-5 percent), and Kansas (-0.7 percent) experienced the greatest complaint volume percentage decrease... Of the five most populated states, Texas (35 percent) experienced the greatest complaint volume percentage increase and Florida (8 percent) experienced the least complaint volume percentage increase from January - March 2016 to January - March 2017."

The report also tracks complaints by company:

CFPB Monthly Complaint Report. April, 2017. Figure 1. Click to view larger version

The CFPB reported additional details about student loan complaints:

"Approximately 32,700 (or 74 percent) of all student loan complaints handled by the CFPB from July 21, 2011 through March 31, 2017 were sent by the CFPB to companies for review and response. The remaining complaints have been found to be incomplete (7 percent), referred to other regulatory agencies (19 percent), or are pending with the CFPB or the consumer (0.5 percent and 0.4 percent, respectively)... The most common issues identified by consumers are problems dealing with their lenders or servicers (64 percent) and being unable to repay their loans (33 percent)."

"Federal student loan borrowers reported that when contacting their loan servicers regarding financial distress, servicers provided them with information on hardship forbearance or deferment, instead of potentially more beneficial repayment options like income-driven repayment plans... loan borrowers complained of difficulty enrolling in income-driven repayment plans. Borrowers reported lost documentation, extended application processing times, and unclear guidance when seeking to switch from one income-driven repayment plan to another."

Federal student loan borrowers described their experiences when trying to obtain guidance in completing annual income recertification for their income-driven repayment plan. Borrowers reported receiving insufficient information from their servicers to meet recertification deadlines and lengthy processing times. Some federal student loan borrowers stated their payments were misapplied. Borrowers reported overpayments were not applied to specified accounts but rather applied to all accounts managed by the servicer. Additionally, some borrowers’ overpayments—intended to reduce principal balance—were credited to the account as an early payment, resulting in their ac count reflecting a paid ahead status..."

To read more, download the full "April 2017: CFPB Monthly Complaint Report: Vol. 22" (Adobe PDF).


Espionage Groups Target Apple Devices With New Malware

ZDNet reported about a group performing multiple online espionage campaigns which targeted:

"... Mac users with malware designed to steal passwords, take screenshots, and steal backed-up iPhone data. This malware, discovered by cybersecurity researchers at Bitdefender, is thought to be linked to the APT28 group, which was accused of interferring in the United States presidential election. Bitdefender notes a number of similarities between the malware attacks against Macs -- which have been taking place since September 2016 -- and previous campaigns by the group, believed to be closely linked to Russia military intelligence and also dubbed Fancy Bear. Known as Xagent, the new form of malware targets victims running Mac OS X and installs a modular backdoor onto the system which enables the perpetrators to carry out cyberespionage activities... Xagent is also capable of stealing iPhone backups stored on a compromised Mac, an action which opens up even more capabilities for conducting cyberespionage, providing the perpetrators with access to additional files..."


Federal Reserve Study: Noncash Payments In The United States

Americans still love to use the plastic in their wallets and purses. Just before the holidays, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) released the results of its study about how Americans use non-cash payment methods: debit cards, credit cards, prepaid cards, ACH payments, and checks. The study included the total number and value of non-cash payments by consumers and businesses through 2015.

The total number of U.S. non-cash payments was more than 144 billion payments with a value of almost $178 trillion in 2015. That represented an increase of almost 21 billion payments or about $17 trillion since 2012. Other key findings from the study:

"The number of debit card payments (including payments with prepaid and non-prepaid cards) grew to 69.5 billion in 2015 with a value of $2.56 trillion, up 13.0 billion or $0.46 trillion since 2012. This was the largest increase in number of payments among the payment types considered. Debit card payments grew at an annual rate of 7.1 percent by number or 6.8 percent by value from 2012 to 2015 with most of the growth occurring in non-prepaid debit card payments. The number of credit card payments reached 33.8 billion in 2015 with a value of $3.16 trillion, up 6.9 billion or $0.61 trillion since 2012. Credit card payments grew at an annual rate of 8.0 percent by number or 7.4 percent by value from 2012 to 2015, the largest growth rates among the payment types considered... The number of check payments fell to 17.3 billion with a value of $26.83 trillion, down 2.5 billion or $0.38 trillion since 2012. Check payments fell at an annual rate of 4.4 percent by number or 0.5 percent by value from 2012 to 2015. The decline of checks over the period was slower than previous studies had shown for prior periods since 2003."

Prepaid cards typically include gift cards and payroll cards which consumers load money onto and which aren't linked to bank accounts (e.g., checking, savings). Past studies have documented numerous fees with prepaid cards while some consumers use prepaid cards instead of traditional bank accounts. "Non-prepaid debit cards" refer to debit cards linked to traditional bank accounts.

There are significant differences between the volume and value for each non-cash payment type. For example, debit cards generated the largest share of payment volume and the smallest share by value:

Figure 1: Distribution of noncash payments by type, volume and value in 2015. FRB Study 2016. Click to view larger version

Another way of looking at the variety of non-cash payment types is the volume of payments over time:

Figure 2: Volume of noncash payments from 2000 to 2015. FRB Study 2016. Click to view larger version

Additional findings about prepaid cards:

"The number of prepaid debit card payments reached 9.9 billion with a value of $0.27 trillion in 2015, up 0.6 billion or $0.04 trillion since 2012. Almost all of the growth in prepaid debit card payments by number and value came from general-purpose prepaid cards, which can be used over the same general-purpose networks as non-prepaid debit cards. General-purpose prepaid card payments increased to 3.7 billion in 2015 by number, up 0.6 billion from 2012 to 2015, which was much less than the growth of 1.8 billion from 2009 to 2012... The average value of payments using these types of cards dropped slightly from $35 in 2012 to $34 in 2015.

Private-label prepaid card payments declined slightly by number, but rose somewhat by value from 2012 to 2015. In 2012, such payments totaled 3.7 billion by number or $0.05 trillion by value, while, in 2015, they totaled 3.6 billion by number or $0.07 trillion by value. Private-label prepaid card payments dropped at an annual rate of 0.3 percent by number but rose 15.0 percent by value. Hence, the average value of these payments rose from $13 to $20.

Payments made by prepaid EBT cards increased slightly from 2.5 billion in 2012 to 2.6 billion in 2015, or 1.7 percent per year, while the value of these payments also increased slightly from $0.07 trillion to $0.08 trillion, or 0.20 percent per year. The average value of prepaid EBT card payments declined slightly, from $30 to $29.

In 2015, non-prepaid debit and general-purpose prepaid cards were used in 5.8 billion cash withdrawals at ATMs, virtually the same level as in 2012, after dropping from 6.0 billion ATM cash withdrawals in 2009. The average value of ATM cash withdrawals rose from $118 to $122 between 2012 and 2015, continuing an upward trend in average value since 2003."

To minimize fraud and waste, banks and retailers began the migration to chip cards in the United States in 2015. The FRB study included findings about fraud:

"Payments with general-purpose cards using embedded microchips, which improve the security of in-person payments to help prevent fraud, have grown by 230 percent per year since 2012. But payments with the chip-based cards amounted to only about 2 percent share of total in-person general-purpose card payments in 2015, reflecting the early stages of a broad industry effort to roll out chip card technology. In 2015, the proportion of total general-purpose card fraud by value attributed to counterfeiting, the most prevalent type of in-person card fraud in the United States, was substantially greater than in countries where chip technology has been more widely adopted."

The United States was one of the last developed countries to switch to chip cards. So, chip card usage in the United States still has a long way to go. The types of fraud with debit/credit/prepaid cards:

  • Counterfeit card: Fraud is perpetrated using an altered or cloned card.
  • Lost or stolen card: Fraud is undertaken using a lost or stolen card.
  • Card issued but not received: A newly issued card sent via postal mail to a cardholder is intercepted and used to commit fraud.
  • Fraudulent application: A new card is issued based on a fake identity or on someone else’s identity.
  • Other: “Other” fraud includes account takeover and other types of fraud not covered above.
  • Fraudulent use of account number: Fraud is perpetrated without using a physical card.

Fraud is perpetrated via two channels: 1) in-person when the cardholder has their card, and 2) remote when the cardholder is not present (e.g., postal mail, online, telephone). To learn more, download the "2016 Federal Reserve Payments Study" (Adobe PDF) and/or read the FRB announcement.


Researchers Conclude Voting Systems In the USA Are Vulnerable To Hacking And Errors

McClatchyDC reported:

"Pennsylvania is one of 11 states where the majority of voters use antiquated machines that store votes electronically, without printed ballots or other paper-based backups that could be used to double-check the balloting. There's almost no way to know if they've accurately recorded individual votes — or if anyone tampered with the count... These paperless digital voting machines, used by roughly 1 in 5 U.S. voters last month, present one of the most glaring dangers to the security of the rickety, underfunded U.S. election system."

I strongly suggest that all voters read the entire McClatchyDC article. It is an eye-opener. Let's unpack the above paragraph. There's plenty to consider.

First, a significant number of voting districts across the nation use only paperless digital voting machines. A prior blog post confirmed this usage:

"... half of registered voters (47%) live in jurisdictions that use only optical-scan as their standard voting system, and about 28% live in DRE-only jurisdictions... Another 19% of registered voters live in jurisdictions where both optical-scan and DRE systems are in use... Around 5% of registered voters live in places that conduct elections entirely by mail – the states of Colorado, Oregon and Washington, more than half of the counties in North Dakota, 10 counties in Utah and two in California. And in more than 1,800 small counties, cities and towns – mostly in New England, the Midwest and the inter-mountain West – more than a million voters still use paper ballots that are counted by hand."

That prior blog post also included a map with voting technologies by district. Second, the paperless digital voting machines make recounts difficult to impossible. Why? They lack printed ballots or paper backups to re-scan and verify against the machines' recorded totals. Optical-scan voting machines are better since they use paper ballots. Those paper ballots can be re-scanned during a recount to verify the machines' totals. Reportedly, advanced countries including Germany, Britain, Japan and Singapore all require scannable paper ballots.

Third, all of this means paperless digital voting machines are a hacker's delight. Or a corrupt politician's delight. If one is going to hack voting systems with a low to zero chance of getting caught, then smart hackers would target machines without paper backups where tampering would be impossible to detect during recounts.

Fourth, the vulnerabilities aren't just theory, or what-ifs. The McClathcyDC article also reported:

"But a cadre of computer scientists from major universities backed Stein's recounts to underscore the vulnerability of U.S. elections. These researchers have been successfully hacking e-voting machines for more than a decade in tests commissioned by New York, California, Ohio and other states."

You can easily find reports online about the vulnerable machines, such as the Sequoia AVC Advantage used in Louisiana, New Jersey, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Another example: last year, the State of Virginia de-certified using the AVS WINVote made by Advanced Voting Solutions, which had previously been used also in Pennsylvania and Mississippi. The security review by the Virginia Information Technologies Agency (Adobe PDF) is available online.

The Brennan Center for Justice (BCJ) produced a report in 2015: "America's Voting Machines At Risk" (Adobe PDF). The BCJ interviewed more than 30 state and 80 local election officials, plus dozens of election technology, administration and security experts. They also gathered input from "computer scientists, policy analysts, usability experts, election security experts, voting equipment vendors, and various innovators in the field of election technology." The BCJ's report summarized the problem:

"... an impending crisis... from the widespread wearing out of voting machines purchased a decade ago... Jurisdictions do not have the money to purchase new machines, and legal and market constraints prevent the development of machines they would want even if they had funds..."

The BCJ found:

"Unlike voting machines used in past eras, today’s systems were not designed to last for decades. In part this is due to the pace of technological change... although today’s machines debuted at the beginning of this century, many were designed and engineered in the 1990s... experts agree that for those purchased since 2000, the expected lifespan for the core components of electronic voting machines is between 10 and 20 years, and for most systems it is probably closer to 10 than 20... 43 states are using some machines that will be at least 10 years old in 2016. In most of these states, the majority of election districts are using machines that are at least 10 years old. In 14 states, machines will be 15 or more years old.

Nearly every state is using some machines that are no longer manufactured and many election officials struggle to find replacement parts. The longer we delay purchasing new equipment, the more problems we risk. The biggest risk is increased failures and crashes, which can lead to long lines and lost votes.

Older machines can also have serious security and reliability flaws that are unacceptable today. For example, Virginia recently decertified a voting system used in 24 percent of precincts after finding that an external party could access the machine’s wireless features to “record voting data or inject malicious data... Several election officials mentioned “flipped votes” on touch screen machines, where a voter touches the name of one candidate, but the machine registers it as a selection for another... Election jurisdictions in at least 31 states want to purchase new voting machines in the next five years. Officials from 22 of these states said they did not know where they would get the money to pay for them."

The USA can do better. It must do better. State and local elections officials must find the money. Elected politicians must help them find the money. Our democracy is at stake.

There is a glimmer of good news. Researchers at Rice University have developed a digital voting machine prototype that prints a paper trail. The paper trail provide verification of voters' selections, which would facilitate recounts and should replace the paperless DRE equipment. It is one of three publicly funded projects across the country. Bidding is open for manufacturers to produce the equipment.

While Stein's recount efforts ultimately failed, the vulnerabilities still exist. As McClatchyDC reported:

"The U.S. voting system — a loosely regulated, locally managed patchwork of more than 3,000 jurisdictions overseen by the states — employs more than two dozen types of machinery from 15 manufacturers.

So, something needs to be done soon to increase the security of DRE or paperless digital voting machines. It's time for voters to demand better voting security and accountability from state and local elections officials (and their politicians) who selected paperless voting equipment for their districts. It seems foolish to tighten voter ID and registration procedures while both under-funding and ignoring the vulnerabilities with paperless digital voting machines.

What are your opinions?


EPA Concludes Fracking a Threat to U.S. Water Supplies

[Editor's note: Today's guest post is by reporters at ProPublica. This new story was originally published on December 14, 2016. It is reprinted with permission.]

by Patrick G. Lee, ProPublica

Starting in 2008, ProPublica published stories that found hydraulic fracking had damaged drinking water supplies across the country. The reporting examined how fracking in some cases had dislodged methane, which then seeped into water supplies. In other instances, the reporting showed that chemicals related to oil and gas production through fracking were winding up in drinking water, and that waste water resulting from fracking operations was contaminating water sources.

Many environmentalists hailed the reporting. The gas drilling industry, for its part, pushed back, initially dismissing the accounts as anecdotal at best.

This week, the Environmental Protection Agency issued its latest and most thorough report on fracking's threat to drinking water, and its findings support ProPublica's reporting. The EPA report found evidence that fracking has contributed to drinking water contamination 2014 "cases of impact" 2014 in all stages of the process: water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing; spills during the management of hydraulic fracturing fluids and chemicals; injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids directly into groundwater resources; discharge of inadequately treated hydraulic fracturing wastewater to surface water resources; and disposal or storage of hydraulic fracturing wastewater in unlined pits, resulting in contamination of groundwater resources.

In an interview, Amy Mall, a senior policy analyst at the National Resources Defense Council, said the EPA's report was welcome.

"Many of us have been working on this issue for many years, and industry has repeatedly said that there is no evidence that fracking has contaminated drinking water," Mall said.

The EPA report comes a year after its initial set of findings set off fierce criticism by environmental advocates and health professionals. That report, issued in 2015, said the agency had found no evidence that fracking had "led to widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources." Many accused the agency of pulling its punches and adding to confusion among the public. News organizations throughout the U.S. interpreted the EPA's language to mean it had concluded fracking did not pose a threat to water supplies and public health.

The EPA said in its report this week that the sentence about the lack of evidence of systemic issues had been intentionally removed because the agency's scientists had "concluded it could not be quantitatively supported."

"I think one of the concerns about the original document was that the EPA seemed to say that everything was fine," said Rob Jackson, a professor of earth-system science at Stanford University. "It's important that we understand the ways and the cases where things have gone wrong, to keep them from happening elsewhere."

The EPA's latest declaration comes as a Trump administration apparently hostile to almost any kind of regulation of fracking prepares to assume office. But those worried about fracking's implications for the environment have long been discouraged by the lack of consistent and stringent state or federal regulation.

"Because state regulators have not fully investigated cases of drinking water contamination, and because federal regulators have been handcuffed by Congress into how much they can regulate, the science wasn't as robust as it should have been," said Mall, the analyst at NRDC. "It's a pattern of, the rules are too weak, and the ones that are on the books aren't enforced enough."

The more significant impact of a Trump administration, however, may be in limiting the EPA's appetite for aggressive and continued study. The report issued this week was six years in the making, but made clear there was still much work to be done to better and more comprehensively determine fracking's impact on the environment, chiefly water supplies.

"It was not possible to calculate or estimate the national frequency of impacts on drinking water resources from activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle or fully characterize the severity of impacts," the report said.

The Trump administration's transition team did not immediately respond to an e-mailed request for comment about its position on fracking and the EPA's final report. Trump's transition website promises to "unleash an energy revolution" and "streamline the permitting process for all energy projects." It also says it will "refocus the EPA on its core mission of ensuring clean air, and clean, safe drinking water for all Americans."

Advocates for hydraulic fracturing argue that the final EPA report is not vastly different from the draft version.

"Anecdotal evidence about localized impacts does not disprove the central thesis, which is that there is no evidence of widespread or systemic impacts," said Scott Segal, a partner at Bracewell LLP who represents oil and gas developers. "There's a lot of exaggeration. There's a lot of mischaracterization of the extent of contamination that's based on a desire to enhance recovery in tort liability lawsuits."

Read more of ProPublica's major work on fracking.

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How To Spot Fake News And Not Get Duped

You may have heard about the "pizzagate" conspiracy -- fake news about a supposed child-sex ring operating from a pizzeria in Washington, DC. A heavily armed citizen drove from North Carolina to the pizzeria to investigate to investigate the bogus child-sex ring supposedly run by Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. The reality: no sex ring. That citizen had been duped by fake news. Shots were fired, and thankfully nobody was hurt.

CBS News reported that the pizzagate conspiracy had been promoted by Michael G. Flynn, son of retired General Michael T. Flynn, Donald Trump's pick for national security adviser. As a result, the younger Flynn resigned Tuesday from President-Elect Trump's transition team.

I use the phrase "fake news" for several types of misleading content: propaganda, unproven or fact-free conspiracy theories, disinformation, and clickbait. The pizzagate incident highlighted two issues: a) fake news has consequences, and b) many people don't know how to distinguish real news from fake news. So, while political operatives reportedly have used a combination of fake news, ads, and social media to both encourage supporters to vote and discourage opponents from voting, there clearly are other real-life consequences.

To help people spot fake news, NPR reported:

"Stopping the proliferation of fake news isn't just the responsibility of the platforms used to spread it. Those who consume news also need to find ways of determining if what they're reading is true. We offer several tips below. The idea is that people should have a fundamental sense of media literacy. And based on a study recently released by Stanford University researchers, many people don't."

The report is enlightening. In the "Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning" report, researchers at Stanford University tested about 7,804 students in 12 states between January 2015 and June 2016. They found:

"... at each level—middle school, high school, and college—these variations paled in comparison to a stunning and dismaying consistency. Overall, young people’s ability to reason about the information on the Internet can be summed up in one word: bleak. Our “digital natives” may be able to flit between Facebook and Twitter while simultaneously uploading a selfie to Instagram and texting a friend. But when it comes to evaluating information that flows through social media channels, they are easily duped... We would hope that middle school students could distinguish an ad from a news story. By high school, we would hope that students reading about gun laws would notice that a chart came from a gun owners’ political action committee. And, in 2016, we would hope college students, who spend hours each day online, would look beyond a .org URL and ask who’s behind a site that presents only one side of a contentious issue. But in every case and at every level, we were taken aback by students’ lack of preparation... Many [people] assume that because young people are fluent in social media they are equally savvy about what they find there. Our work shows the opposite."

This is important for both individuals and the future of the nation because:

"For every challenge facing this nation, there are scores of websites pretending to be something they are not. Ordinary people once relied on publishers, editors, and subject matter experts to vet the information they consumed. But on the unregulated Internet, all bets are off... Never have we had so much information at our fingertips. Whether this bounty will make us smarter and better informed or more ignorant and narrow-minded will depend on our awareness of this problem and our educational response to it. At present, we worry that democracy is threatened by the ease at which disinformation about civic issues is allowed to spread and flourish."

While the study focused upon students, but older persons have been duped, too. The suspect in the pizzeria incident was 28 years old. The Stanford report focused upon what teachers and educators can do to better prepare students. According to the researchers, additional solutions are forthcoming.

What can you do to spot fake news? Don't wait for sites and/or social media to do it for you. Become a smarter consumer. The NPR report suggested:

  1. Pay attention to the domain and URL
  2. Read the "About Us" section of the site
  3. Look at the quotes in a story
  4. Look at who said the quotes

All of the suggestions require readers to take the time to understand the website, publication, and/or publisher. A little skepticism is healthy. Also verify the persons quoted and whether the persons quoted are who the article claims. And, verify that any images used actually relate to the event.

We all have to be smarter consumers of news in order to stay informed and meet our civic duties, which includes voting. Nobody wants to vote for politicians that don't represent their interests because they've been duped. To the above list, I would add:

  • Read news wires. These sites include the raw, unfiltered news about who, when, where, and what happened. Some suggested sources: : Associated Press (AP), Reuters, and United Press International (UPI)
  • Learn to recognize advertisements
  • Learn the differences between different types of content: news, opinion, analysis, satire/humor, and entertainment. Reputable sites will label them to help readers.

If you don't know the differences and can't spot each type, then you are likely to get duped.


Voting Technologies By County Across The United States

State and local governments across the United States use a variety of voting technologies. Chances are, you voted on Tuesday using one of two dominant technologies: optical-scan ballots or direct-recording electronic (DRE) devices. Optical-scan ballots are paper ballots where voters fill in bubbles or other machine-readable marks. DRE devices include touch-screen devices that store votes in computer memory.

The Pew Research Center analyzed data from the Verified Voting Foundation, a nongovernmental organization, and found that almost:

"... half of registered voters (47%) live in jurisdictions that use only optical-scan as their standard voting system, and about 28% live in DRE-only jurisdictions... Another 19% of registered voters live in jurisdictions where both optical-scan and DRE systems are in use... Around 5% of registered voters live in places that conduct elections entirely by mail – the states of Colorado, Oregon and Washington, more than half of the counties in North Dakota, 10 counties in Utah and two in California. And in more than 1,800 small counties, cities and towns – mostly in New England, the Midwest and the inter-mountain West – more than a million voters still use paper ballots that are counted by hand."

Previously, voting systems nationwide used punch-card devices and "lever machines" which were slowly replaced since 1980 by optical-scan and DRE devices. You may remember voting with one of the old-style lever machines, a self-contained voting booth where voters flips switches for candidates and then pulled a large lever to record their votes:

"Punch cards hung on throughout the 1990s but gradually lost ground to optical-scan and electronic systems – a decline that accelerated sharply after the 2000 Florida election recount debacle that brought the term “hanging chad” to brief prominence. But as punch cards faded away (the last two jurisdictions to use them, Franklin and Shoshone counties in Idaho, abandoned them after the 2014 elections), some voters became concerned that fully electronic voting would not generate any “paper trail” for future recounts. According to Verified Voting, of the 53,608 jurisdictions that use DRE equipment as their major voting method, almost three-quarters use systems that don’t create paper receipts or other hard-copy records of voters’ choices."

In August of this year, Wired reported about the state of security of the DRE devices:

"What people may not remember is the resulting Help America Vote Act (HAVA), passed in 2002, which among other objectives worked to phase out the use of the punchcard voting systems that had caused millions of ballots to be tossed. In many cases, those dated machines were replaced with electronic voting systems. The intentions were pure. The consequences were a technological train wreck.

“People weren’t thinking about voting system security or all the additional challenges that come with electronic voting systems,” says the Brennan Center’s Lawrence Norden. “Moving to electronic voting systems solved a lot of problems, but created a lot of new ones.”

The list of those problems is what you’d expect from any computer or, more specifically, any computer that’s a decade or older. Most of these machines are running Windows XP, for which Microsoft hasn’t released a security patch since April 2014. Though there’s no evidence of direct voting machine interference to date, researchers have demonstrated that many of them are susceptible to malware or, equally if not more alarming, a well-timed denial of service attack."

Experts have said that, besides better built and more secure DREs, post-election auditing -- checking vote totals against paper ballots -- is the best way to ensure accurate vote totals. Reportedly, more than half of states perform post-election audits.

So, it seems appropriate for citizens living in counties that use antiquated DREs, or that don't perform post-election audits, to contact their elected representatives and demand improvements. Good entities to contact are the elections departments in your city, or the Secretary in your state. Find your state in this list. Below is an image of voting technologies by county:

Pew Research Voting technologies by county in the United States. Click to view larger version


Connected Cars: 4 Tips For Drivers To Stay Safe Online

With the increasing dominance of the Internet of Things (IoT), connected cars are becoming more ubiquitous than ever. We’ve long heard warnings from the media about staying safe online, but few consumers consider data hacks and other security compromises while driving a car connected to the internet.

According to the inforgraphic below from Arxan, an app protection company, 75 percent of all cars shipped globally will have internet connectivity by 2020, and current connected cars have more than 100 million lines of code. Connected features are designed to improve safety, fuel efficiency, and overall convenience. These features range from Bluetooth, WiFi, cellular network connections, keyless entry systems, to deeper “cyberphysical” features like automated braking, and parking and lane assist.

More Features Means More Vulnerability
However, with this increasing connectivity comes risks from malicious hacking. Today, connected cars have many attack points malicious hackers can exploit, including the OBD2 port used to connect third-party devices, and the software running on infotainment systems.

According to Arxan, some of the more vulnerable attack points are mobile apps that unlock vehicles and start a vehicle remotely, diagnostic devices, and insurance dongles, including the ones insurance companies give to monitor and reward safe drivers. These plug into the OBD2 port, but hackers could essentially access any embedded system in the car after lifting cryptographic keys, as the Arxan page on application protection for connected cars describes.

Vulnerabilities are usually demonstrated in conferences like Black Hat. Example: in 2010, researchers at the University of Washington and the University of California San Diego hacked a car that had a variety of wireless capabilities. The vulnerable attack points they targeted included its Bluetooth, the cellular radio, an Android app on the owner’s phone that was connected to the car’s network, and an audio file burned onto a CD in the car’s stereo. In 2013, hackers Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek hijacked the steering and brake systems of both a Ford Escape and Toyota Prius with only their laptops.

How To Protect Yourself
According to the FBI and Department of Transportation in a public service announcement, it’s crucial that consumers following the following recommendations to best protect themselves:

  1. Keep your vehicle’s software up to date
  2. Stay aware of recalls that require manual security patches to your car’s code
  3. Avoid unauthorized changes to your car’s software
  4. Use caution when plugging insecure devices into the car’s ports and network

With the latest remote hack of a Tesla Model S, it seems that the response time between finding out about a breach and issuing a patch to correct it is thankfully getting shorter. As more automakers become tech-oriented like Tesla, they will also need to cooperate with OEMs to make sure the operating-system software in their vehicles is designed securely. It seems, this will take time, coordination with vendors, and money to bring these operations in house.

Arxan connected vehicles infographic

What do you do to protect your Internet-connected vehicle? What security tools and features would you prefer automakers and security vendors provide?


Report Documents The Problems And Privacy Risks With Unregulated Facial Recognition Databases By Law Enforcement

According to a report by the Center on Privacy and Technology (CPT) at Georgetown Law school, about 48 percent of adult Americans -- 117 million people-- are already profiled in facial-recognition databases by law enforcement. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) maintains a facial-recognition database, but local police departments do, too.

Issues raised by findings in the report:

"Across the country, state and local police departments are building their own face recognition systems, many of them more advanced than the FBI’s. We know very little about these systems. We don’t know how they impact privacy and civil liberties. We don’t know how they address accuracy problems. And we don’t know how any of these systems—local, state, or federal—affect racial and ethnic minorities."

Facial recognition software is not new, and the report acknowledges that its use is inevitable by law enforcement. The facts include:

"FBI face recognition searches are more common than federal court-ordered wiretaps. At least one out of four state or local police departments has the option to run face recognition searches through their or another agency’s system. At least 26 states (and potentially as many as 30) allow law enforcement to run or request searches against their databases of driver’s license and ID photos. Roughly one in two American adults has their photos searched this way... Historically, FBI fingerprint and DNA databases have been primarily or exclusively made up of information from criminal arrests or investigations. By running face recognition searches against 16 states’ driver’s license photo databases, the FBI has built a biometric network that primarily includes law-abiding Americans. This is unprecedented and highly problematic..."

The report does not want to stop facial-recognition software usage, and it acknowledges that most law enforcement personnel do not want to invade citizens' privacy. The report' raises concerns based upon the data collection primarily includes law-abiding citizens and not just criminals; plus the lack of transparency and regulation regarding accuracy, training, and deployment. Some of the uses that raise concerns:

"Real-time face recognition lets police continuously scan the faces of pedestrians walking by a street surveillance camera... at least five major police departments—including agencies in Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles—either claimed to run real-time face recognition off of street cameras, bought technology that can do so, or expressed a written interest in buying it... A face recognition search conducted in the field to verify the identity of someone who has been legally stopped or arrested is different, in principle and effect, than an investigatory search of an ATM photo against a driver’s license database, or continuous, real-time scans of people walking by a surveillance camera. The former is targeted and public. The latter are generalized and invisible. While some agencies, like the San Diego Association of Governments, limit themselves to more targeted use of the technology, others are embracing high and very high risk deployments."

The report described specific examples of usage at the state and local levels:

"No state has passed a law comprehensively regulating police face recognition. We are not aware of any agency that requires warrants for searches or limits them to serious crimes. This has consequences. The Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office enrolled all of Honduras’ driver’s licenses and mug shots into its database. The Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office system runs 8,000 monthly searches on the faces of seven million Florida drivers—without requiring that officers have even a reasonable suspicion before running a search..."

A major concern the report discussed is the:

"... real risk that police face recognition will be used to stifle free speech. There is also a history of FBI and police surveillance of civil rights protests. Of the 52 agencies that we found to use (or have used) face recognition, we found only one, the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation, whose face recognition use policy expressly prohibits its officers from using face recognition to track individuals engaging in political, religious, or other protected free speech."

Another major concern the report discussed:

"Face recognition is less accurate than fingerprinting, particularly when used in real-time or on large databases. Yet we found only two agencies, the San Francisco Police Department and the Seattle region’s South Sound 911, that conditioned purchase of the technology on accuracy tests or thresholds. There is a need for testing. One major face recognition company, FaceFirst, publicly advertises a 95% accuracy rate but disclaims liability for failing to meet that threshold in contracts with the San Diego Association of Governments... Companies and police departments largely rely on police officers to decide whether a candidate photo is in fact a match. Yet a recent study showed that, without specialized training, human users make the wrong decision about a match half the time... an FBI co-authored study suggests that face recognition may be less accurate on black people..."

Regarding the lack of transparency by law enforcement:

"Ohio’s face recognition system remained almost entirely unknown to the public for five years. The New York Police Department acknowledges using face recognition; press reports suggest it has an advanced system. Yet NYPD denied our records request entirely. The Los Angeles Police Department has repeatedly announced new face recognition initiatives—including a “smart car” equipped with face recognition and real-time face recognition cameras—yet the agency claimed to have “no records responsive” to our document request. Of 52 agencies, only four (less than 10%) have a publicly available use policy. And only one agency, the San Diego Association of Governments, received legislative approval for its policy... Maryland’s system, which includes the license photos of over two million residents, was launched in 2011. It has never been audited. The Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office system is almost 15 years old and may be the most frequently used system in the country. When asked if his office audits searches for misuse, Sheriff Bob Gualtieri replied, “No, not really.” Despite assurances to Congress, the FBI has not audited use of its face recognition system, either..."

Learn more about the expanded facial-recognition system the FBI deployed in 2014. The New York Times reported last year about some of the problems:

"Facial recognition software, which American military and intelligence agencies used for years in Iraq and Afghanistan to identify potential terrorists, is being eagerly adopted by dozens of police departments around the country to pursue drug dealers, prostitutes and other conventional criminal suspects. But because it is being used with few guidelines and with little oversight or public disclosure... Law enforcement officers say the technology is much faster than fingerprinting at identifying suspects, although it is unclear how much it is helping the police make arrests... "

The CPT report proposed the following solutions to address privacy concerns:

  • Use mug-shot databases (and not driver’s license databases and ID photos) as the default for facial recognition searches. Periodically purge them of innocent persons,
  • Searches of driver's license databases and ID photos should require a court order showing probable cause, except in instances of identity theft and fraud,
  • Notify the public if the policy includes searches of databases maintained by motor-vehicle agencies,
  • Local communities should decide real-time facial recognition surveillance is used in public places of the public and/or with police-worn body cameras. Real-time facial recognition surveilance should be a last resort used only in life-threatening emergencies supported by probable cause with limits as to scope and duration.

The year-long investigation by the CPT included more than 100 records requests to police departments around the country. Read the full report: "The Perpetual Line-up: Unregulated Police Face Recognition in America."

We know the National Security Agency (NSA) uses facial recognition software. Some agencies probably acquire photos and related information from them, too. If so, this should be disclosed. In 2012, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed guidelines for facial-recognition by social networking sites, companies, and retail stores. Since governments are supposed to report to and serve citizens, similar guidelines should apply to law enforcement.

What are your opinions of real-time facial recognition surveillance? Of the issues raised by the CDT report?


Proposed Legislation in Michigan For Driverless Cars

The Stanford Center For Internet & Society (CIS) analyzed several draft driverless-car bills under consideration by legislators in Michigan. The analysis highlighted the issues and inconsistencies by the proposed legislation. First, the good news. While SB 995 repeals existing laws that ban driverless cars, it:

"... would return Michigan law to flexible ambiguity on the question of the legality of automated driving in general. The bill probably goes even further by expressly authorizing automated driving: It provides that "[a]n automated motor vehicle may be operated on a street or highway on this state," and the summary of the bill as reported from committee similarly concludes that SB 995 would "[a]llow an automated motor vehicle to be operated on a street or highway in Michigan." (This provision is somewhat confusing because it would be added to an existing statutory section that currently addresses only research and testing and because it would seem to subvert many restrictions on research tests and "on-demand automated motor vehicle networks.") Regardless, this bill would also exempt groups of closely spaced and tightly coordinated vehicles from certain following-distance requirements that are incompatible with platooning."

Platooning is a method for several driverless vehicles to operate together on highways with less space in between, than otherwise. Advocates claim this maximizes the capacity of highways. What does this mean for safety? Do consumers want platooning? Can drivers opt out? If platooning is allowed, then the driverless vehicle you ultimately buy must be outfitted with that software feature.

The drawbacks of the draft legislation:

"... The currently proposed language could mean that automated driving is lawful only in the context of research and development and "on-demand motor vehicle networks." Or it could mean that automated driving is lawful generally and that these networks are subject to more restrictive requirements. It could mean that any company could run a driverless taxi service, including motor vehicle manufacturers that might otherwise face unrelated and unspecified legal impediments. Or it could mean that a company seeking to run a driverless taxi service must partner with a motor vehicle manufacturer -- or that such a company must at least purchase production vehicles, the modification of which might then be restricted by SB 927 and 928 (see below). It could also mean that municipalities could regulate and tax only those driverless taxi services that do not involve a manufacturer..."

And:

"... SB 995 and 996 understandably struggle to reconcile an existing vehicle code with automated driving. Under existing Michigan law, a "driver" is "every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle," an "operator" is "a person, other than a chauffeur, who "[o]perates" either "a motor vehicle" or "an automated motor vehicle," and "operate" means either "[b]eing in actual physical control of a vehicle" or "[c]ausing an automated motor vehicle to move under its own power in automatic mode," which "includes engaging the automated technology of that automated motor vehicle for that purpose." The new bills would not change this language, but they would further complicate these concepts in several ways..."

I encourage you to read the long list of complications in the CIS analysis. Another key issue:

"Consider the provision that "an automated driving system ... shall be considered the driver or operator ... for purposes of determining conformance to any applicable traffic or motor vehicle laws." This provision says nothing about who or what the driver is for purposes of determining liability for a violation of those laws, particularly when there is no crash. SB 996 does provide that "a motor vehicle manufacturer shall assume liability for each incident in which the automated driving system is at fault," subject to the state's existing insurance code..."

The proposed legislation is important for several reasons. Besides platooning and the list of complications, it decides: a) which types of companies can operate driverless-car networks, b) who is liable and under what conditions, and c) who can repair driverless cars. All items affect consumers rights. A narrow definition of "A" (e.g., only automakers) would mean fewer competitors, and probably higher prices due to a lack of competition. Similarly, a narrow definition of "C" could mean fewer options and choices for consumers, with higher repair prices. Liability must be clear for instances when a driverless vehicle violates road laws; and especially when there is a crash and/or fatality.

Consistency and clarity matter, too. The final legislation and definitions also should be forward-thinking. It's not just driverless vehicles but also remotely-operated vehicles. Companies want remotely-operated ships on the oceans, and remotely-operated trucks are already used off-road for mining purposes. It seems wise to anticipate that off-road use will probably migrate to roads and highways.

Clearly, the proposed legislation in Michigan is not ready yet for prime time. This topic definitely bears monitoring.


Oklahoma Closes 37 'Disposal Wells' After Quake. Report Listed Susceptible Areas In 6 States

During the holiday weekend, CNN reported:

"Five months before Saturday's 5.6 magnitude temblor in central Oklahoma, government scientists warned that oil and natural gas drilling had made a wide swath of the country more susceptible to earthquakes.

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in a March report on "induced earthquakes," said as many as 7.9 million people in parts of Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas now face the same earthquake risks as those in California. The report found that oil and gas drilling activity, particularly practices like hydraulic fracturing or fracking, is at issue... Saturday's earthquake spurred state regulators in Oklahoma to order 37 disposal wells, which are used by frackers, to shut down over a 725-square mile area... The quake that struck Saturday is at least the second of its size to affect central Oklahoma since 2011."

What are "disposal wells?" A variety of activities produce waste stored using "Class I Disposal Wells:" petroleum refining, metal production, chemical production, pharmaceutical production, commercial disposal, food production, and municipal wastewater treatment. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), these Class I wells are further categorized into four types: municipal, non-hazardous, hazardous, and radioactive. The EPA site also explains the other Classes of wells: II, III, IV, V, and VI.

So, a lot of industries besides fracking pump liquids into the ground -- deep into the ground; both to extract resources and to deposit waste.

Given the earthquake activity, the closed wells, and damage to business and residential properties, it seems wise to read the March 2016 report by the USGS, which discussed at the risks and potential for damage from both natural and induced earthquakes:

"The most significant hazards from induced seismicity are in six states, listed in order from highest to lowest potential hazard: Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico and Arkansas. Oklahoma and Texas have the largest populations exposed to induced earthquakes."

So, that's a list you wouldn't want to see mention your state. Nor would you want to see your state at the top of the list. The USGS report included maps highlighting specific areas with risks ranging from less than one percent to a 12 percent probability. The report also stated:

“In the past five years, the USGS has documented high shaking and damage in areas of these six states, mostly from induced earthquakes... the USGS Did You Feel It? website has archived tens of thousands of reports from the public who experienced shaking in those states, including about 1,500 reports of strong shaking or damage.” In developing this new product, USGS scientists identified 21 areas with increased rates of induced seismicity. Induced earthquakes have occurred within small areas of Alabama and Ohio but a recent decrease in induced earthquake activity has resulted in a lower hazard forecast in these states for the next year. In other areas of Alabama and small parts of Mississippi, there has been an increase in activity, and scientists are still investigating whether those events were induced or natural."

Lets unpack this. First, risk varies based upon where you live. Second, risk varies with time. The USGS risk models include both one-year and 50-year outlooks. So, the risk in an area may be low during the coming year, but very different (e.g., higher) when considering what might happen during the next 50 years. That sounds a lot like floods. A huge, devastating flood may not happen often -- perhaps once every 50 or 100 years, but when it does... the damage and costs are considerable. Third, you don't need to live near or adjacent to a well to be affected.

Below is the USGS map with 21 susceptible areas:

USGS map with seismic activity during 1980 to 2015. Click to view larger version

Note the areas named: Alice, Ashtabula, Brewton, Cogdell, Dagger Draw, El Dorado, Fashbing, Greeley, Irving, North-Central Arkansas, North Texas, Oklahoma-Kansas, Paradox Valley, Perry, Raton Basio, Rangely, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sun City, Timpson, Venus, and Youngstown. The USGS advises persons living in areas with higher earthquake risks to learn how to prepare, and visit FEMA's Ready Campaign website.

A USGS report in 2015 titled, "6 Facts About Human-Caused Earthquakes" described the types of human activities:

"Injecting fluid underground can induce earthquakes, a fact that was established decades ago by USGS scientists. This process increases the fluid pressure within fault zones, essentially loosening the fault zones and making them more likely to fail in an earthquake... even faults that have not moved in historical times can be made to slip and cause an earthquake... There are several purposes for injecting fluid underground. The three main reasons are wastewater injection, hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery. Within the United States, each of these three activities has induced earthquakes to varying degrees in the past few years. All three types of wells used for these purposes are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act with minimum standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Additional regulations vary by state and municipality. Other purposes for injecting fluid underground include enhanced geothermal systems and geologic carbon sequestration."

That same report also mentioned this:

"Fact 5: Induced seismicity can occur at significant distances from injection wells and at different depths. Earthquakes can be induced at distances of 10 miles or more away from the injection point and at significantly greater depths than the injection point."

So, to be affected you don't have to live near or adjacent to a disposal well or injection point. Alert readers will notice that the EPA's classification system for wells and injection points largely mirrors the different types of human activities... which really seem to be mostly corporate activities.

Do you live in or near one of the 21 areas? What are your opinions?


Study Confirms Consumers Ignore Online Policies And Agree To Anything

Researchers have confirmed what privacy advocates and government regulators have suspected for a long time: Internet users often ignore online policies: privacy and terms of service. And those consumers who read policies, pay insufficient attention.

In a working paper titled, "The Biggest Lie On The Internet," researchers tested 543 college students (from a communications class) by having them sign up for NameDrop, a fictitious social networking site (SNS). 47 Percent of test participants were female, and the average age of all participants was 19. 62 percent identified as Caucasian, 15 percent as Asian, 6 percent as Black, 2 percent as Hispanic/Latin, and 3 percent as mixed race/ethnicity.

Authors of the working paper were Jonathann A. Obar, a Research Associate at the the Quello Center for Telecommunications Management and Law at Michigan State University, and Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch, at the University of Connecticut. The paper was submitted for peer review and to the U.S. Feral Communications Commission (FCC).

The study found that almost three of four test participants -- 74 percent -- skipped reading the privacy policy by clicking on a "Quick Join" button. Those that did read the privacy policy spent a little over a minute -- 73 seconds -- reading the 7,977-word policy. Test participants spent less time -- 51 seconds -- reading the 4,316-word TOS policy.

The researchers expected test participants to spend longer times reading the policies because persons with a 12-grade or college education read about 250 to 280 words per minute. So, the it should have taken 29 to 32 minutes to read the 7,977-word privacy policy. The range of actual reading times was 2.96 seconds to 37 minutes; with 80 percent of test participants spending less than one minute of reading time.

The paper did not mention if reading times varied by device (e.g., phone, tablet, laptop, desktop). The researchers identified three factors that predict policy reading times:

  1. Information Overload: if the persons perceived the policies to be too long andtoo much work,
  2. Nothing to Hide: persons view the policies as irrelevant because they do nothing wrong, and
  3. Difficult to Understand: persons believe that they can't understand the language in the policies.

The researchers inserted problematic clauses into the policies which test participants should have spotted and inquired about:

"Implications were revealed as 98 percent missed NameDrop TOS 'gotcha clauses' about data sharing with the National Security Agency (NSA) and employers, and about providing a first-born child as payment for SNS access."

Only 15 percent (83 persons) expressed concerns about NameDrop's policies. Of the 83 persons who expressed concerns, 11 mentioned the NSA clause, and nine mentioned the child-assignment clause. The rest mentioned concerns about the length of the policies and the trustworthiness of the SNS.

The study also asked test participants how long they spent reading policies. The findings supported the "privacy paradox" found by other researchers:

"The paradox suggests that when asked, individuals appear to value privacy, but when behaviors are examined, individual actions suggest that privacy is not a high priority... When participants were asked to self-report their engagement with privacy and TOS policies, results suggested average reading times of approximately five minutes..."

So, test participants said they spent about 5 minutes reading policies while their actual times were about a minute or less, if they read the policies at all.

With most consumers skipping online policies, they have given companies the power to insert any clauses desired into these policies. This has implications for consumers' ability to control their online reputation, privacy, and resolve conflicts (e.g., binding arbitration instead of courts).

This also has implications for how governments enforce data protection for their citizens. Historically:

"... approaches to privacy and increasingly reputation protections by governments throughout the world often draw from a contentious model referred to as the 'notice and choice' privacy framework. Notice and choice evolved from the U.S. Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) Fair Information Practice Principles, developed in the 1970s to address growing information privacy concerns raised by digitization. In the early 1980s, the FIPPs were promoted by the OECD as part of an international set of privacy guidelines, contributing to the implementation of data protection laws and guidelines in the U.S., Canada, the EU, Australia, and elsewhere... The notice and choice privacy framework was designed to "put individuals in charge of the collection and use of their personal information" (Reidenberg et al, 2014: 3)..."

The researchers' focused upon the:

"... notice component, noted by the FTC as "the most fundamental principle" (FTC, 1998: 7) of personal information protection... As the FTC (1998) notes, choice and related principles attempting to offer data control "are only meaningful when a consumer has notice of an entity's policies, and his or her rights with respect thereto." Notice policies typically... appear on websites, applications, are sent in the mail, provided in-person, generally when an individual connects with the entity in question for the first time, and increasingly when policies change. Despite suggestions that notice policy in particular is deeply flawed, strategies for strengthening notice policy continue to be seen as central to address, for example, privacy concerns associated with corporate and government surveillance, and consumer protection concerns about Big Data..."

So, the biggest lie on the Internet is that consumers agree to policies, which they really can't because they haven't read them. Governments, privacy advocates, companies, and usability professionals need to find a better way, because the current approach clearly isn't working:

"The policy implications of these findings contribute to the community of critique suggesting that notice and choice policy is deeply flawed, if not an absolute failure. Transparency is a great place to start, as is notice and choice policy; however, all are terrible places to finish. They leave digital citizens with nothing more than an empty promise of protection, an impractical opportunity for data privacy self-management, and as Daniel Solove (2012) analogizes, too much homework. This doesn't even begin to address the challenges unique to children in the realm of digital reputation..."

Absolutely, since many sites allow children as young as 14 to sign up. Policy reading rates are probably worse among children ages 14 - 17.

Download the working paper: "The Biggest Lie on The Internet" (Adobe PDF). the paper is also available here. The study used students majoring in communications. I wonder if the results would have been different with business majors or law students. What do you think?


Coming Soon: Autonomous Freighters On The Oceans

Technology races forward in several industries. The military uses remote-controlled drones, vendors use drones to inspect buildings, companies test driver-less cars, automakers introduce cars with more automation, and retailers pursue delivery drones. Add shipping to the list of industries.

Experts predict that robotic ships will sail the oceans by 2020. The Infinity Leap site reported:

"The concept of robotic ships was revealed by Rolls Royce back in 2014. According to reports, the Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications (AAWA) project guided by Rolls-Royce recently came up with a white paper which provides comprehensive details about the robotic ships or the autonomous vessels and the problems associated with them as far as their operation is concerned... the AAWA whitepaper is developed by Rolls-Royce with the support of partners like ESL Shipping, Finferries, Brighthouse Intelligence and the Tampere University of Technology. The AAWA whitepaper talks extensively about autonomous applications, and the issues related to the safety and certainty of designing and running the distantly controlled ships."

So, there's some new terminology to learn. Obviously, manned ships include on-board human crews that operate all ship's functions. There are subtle but important differences between automated, remote-controlled, and autonomous ships. The Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligent Networks (MUNIN) website provides some helpful definitions and diagrams:

"The remote ship is where the tasks of operating the ship are performed via a remote control mechanism (e.g. by a shore based human operator), and

The automated ship is where advanced decision support systems on board undertake all the operational decisions independently without intervention of a human operator."

I found this diagram helpful with understanding the different types of robotic ships:

MUNIN. Types of robotic ships. Click to view larger version

So, the remote human operator could be on land, on board another ship, or on board an airplane. And, remote-controlled ships will use augmented reality displays. Again, from Infinity Leap:

"According to reports, Rolls-Royce has developed a unique new bridge called ‘oX’ or the Future Operator Experience Concept in collaboration with Finland’s VTT Technical Research Centre and Aalto University. It is learned that the bridge’s windows serve as augmented reality displays, which help in displaying necessary information and improve the visibility around the ship with the support of high-end cameras and sensors. That means the augmented reality windows help in displaying navigation tracks and give necessary warnings and information about the ships sailing nearby, ice and a whole lot of other invisible things."

The MUNIN site also provides a view of how decisions might be made by autonomous ships:

MUNIN. Decision making by autonomous ships. Click to view larger version

All of this makes one wonder how much of this automation the passenger cruise ship industry will adopt. It is a reminder of the importance of applying similar distinctions in types of automation to land-based commercial vehicles: delivery vans, school buses, inter-city buses, tractor-trailers, buses and trains in mass-transit systems, and construction equipment.

Would you want your children riding in autonomous school buses? How do you feel about riding in autonomous mass-transit buses or subways? Commuter trains?


In The Modern Era, More Young Adults Live With Their Parents

As a parent of three children who are now adults, this news item caught my attention. The Pew Research Center reported:

"Broad demographic shifts in marital status, educational attainment and employment have transformed the way young adults in the U.S. are living, and an analysis of census data highlights the implications of these changes for the most basic element of their lives – where they call home. In 2014, for the first time in more than 130 years, adults ages 18 to 34 were slightly more likely to be living in their parents’ home than they were to be living with a spouse or partner in their own household."

The data:

  Percent of Adults
Ages 18 to 34
Living Arrangement 1880 1940 1960 2014
Living at home with parents 30 35 20 32.1
Married or co-habitation in own household 45 46 62 31.6
Living alone, single parents, and other head of household 3 3 5 14
Other living arrangement 22 16 13 22

Several factors contributed to this shift:

"The first is the postponement of, if not retreat from, marriage. The median age of first marriage has risen steadily for decades. In addition, a growing share of young adults may be eschewing marriage altogether. A previous Pew Research Center analysis projected that as many as one-in-four of today’s young adults may never marry. While cohabitation has been on the rise, the overall share of young adults either married or living with an unmarried partner has substantially fallen since 1990.

In addition... employed young men are much less likely to live at home than young men without a job, and employment among young men has fallen significantly in recent decades. The share of young men with jobs peaked around 1960 at 84%. In 2014, only 71% of 18- to 34-year-old men were employed. Similarly with earnings, young men’s wages (after adjusting for inflation) have been on a downward trajectory since 1970 and fell significantly from 2000 to 2010. As wages have fallen, the share of young men living in the home of their parent(s) has risen."

And there are differences by gender:

"For men ages 18 to 34, living at home with mom and/or dad has been the dominant living arrangement since 2009. 'In 2014, 28 percent of young men were living with a spouse or partner in their own home, while 35 percent were living in the home of their parent(s). For their part, young women are on the cusp of crossing over this threshold: They are still more likely to be living with a spouse or romantic partner (35%) than they are to be living with their parent(s) (29%). In 2014, more young women (16%) than young men (13%) were heading up a household without a spouse or partner. This is mainly because women are more likely than men to be single parents living with their children..."

Additional findings:

"In 2014, 40 percent of 18- to 34-year-olds who had not completed high school lived with parent(s), the highest rate observed since the 1940 Census when information on educational attainment was first collected.

Young adults in states in the South Atlantic, West South Central and Pacific United States have recently experienced the highest rates on record of living with parent(s).

With few exceptions, since 1880 young men across all races and ethnicities have been more likely than young women to live in the home of their parent(s)."

The methodology included decennial census data and large samples, typically 1 percent of young adults nationwide.


Social Networking Sites With The Largest Number of News Users

Recently, some friends and I were discussing the wisdom of getting your news from social networking websites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, Youtube, LinkedIn, etc.) instead of directly from news media sites. Apparently, many consumers get their news from such sites.

The Pew Research Center reported that most adults in the United States, 62 percent, get their news from social networking sites. The corresponding statistic in 2012 was 49 percent. Fewer social media site users get their news from other platforms: local television (46 percent), cable TV (31 percent), nightly network TV (30 percent), news websites/apps (28 percent), radio (25 percent), and print newspapers (20 percent). 

Pew analyzed which social networking sites were used the most for news, and whether consumers used multiple sites to obtain news. The Pew Research Center found:

"Two-thirds of Facebook users (66 percent) get news on the site, nearly six-in-ten Twitter users (59 percent) get news on Twitter, and seven-in-ten Reddit users get news on that platform. On Tumblr, the figure sits at 31 percent..."

The corresponding statistics are 23 percent for Instagram, 21 percent for Youtube, 19 percent for LinkedIn, and 17 percent at Snapchat. The implications:

"Facebook is by far the largest social networking site, reaching 67% of U.S. adults. The two-thirds of Facebook users who get news there, then, amount to 44% of the general population. YouTube has the next greatest reach in terms of general usage, at 48% of U.S. adults. But only about a fifth of its users get news there, which amounts to 10% of the adult population. That puts it on par with Twitter, which has a smaller user base (16% of U.S. adults) but a larger portion getting news there."

About audience overlap, Pew found that most people (64 percent) get their news from one social media site. 26 percent get their news from two social media sites, and 10 percent get their news from three social media sites. Pew also found that more users at Reddit, Twitter, and LinkedIn seek out news versus stumbling across it by accident:

  Percent of news users of each
site who mostly get news online
Social Networking Site While doing
other things
Because they're
looking for it
Instagram 63 37
Facebook 62 38
Youtube 58 41
LinkedIn 46 51
Twitter 45 54
Reddit 42 55

Who are the news users at the five largest social sites with news users? The users vary by site:

"... while there is some crossover, each site appeals to a somewhat different group. Instagram news consumers stand out from other groups as more likely to be non-white, young and, for all but Facebook, female. LinkedIn news consumers are more likely to have a college degree than news users of the other four platforms; Twitter news users are the second most likely."

The demographic data:

Pew-social-news-users

Some of you are probably wondering about Google+ and Pinterest. Pew removed three social media sites because:

"... Pinterest, which has been shown to have a small portion of users who use it for news; Myspace, which has largely transitioned to a music site; and Google+, which through its recent transformations is being phased out as a social networking site."

The survey was conducted from January 12 to February 8, 2016 and included 4,654 respondents (4,339 by web and 315 by mail). The methodology included a randomly-selected subset of U.S. adults (6,301 total web-based persons and 474 total mail persons.


Courts To Use Risk Scores More Frequently. Analysis Found Scores Unreliable And Racial Bias

ProPublica investigated the use of risk assessment scores by the courts and justice system in the United States:

"... risk assessments — are increasingly common in courtrooms across the nation. They are used to inform decisions about who can be set free at every stage of the criminal justice system, from assigning bond amounts... to even more fundamental decisions about defendants’ freedom. In Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin, the results of such assessments are given to judges during criminal sentencing. Rating a defendant’s risk of future crime is often done in conjunction with an evaluation of a defendant’s rehabilitation needs. The Justice Department’s National Institute of Corrections now encourages the use of such combined assessments at every stage of the criminal justice process. And a landmark sentencing reform bill currently pending in Congress would mandate the use of such assessments in federal prisons."

Some important background:

"In 2014, then U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder warned that the risk scores might be injecting bias into the courts. He called for the U.S. Sentencing Commission to study their use... The sentencing commission did not, however, launch a study of risk scores. So ProPublica did, as part of a larger examination of the powerful, largely hidden effect of algorithms in American life. [ProPublica] obtained the risk scores assigned to more than 7,000 people arrested in Broward County, Florida, in 2013 and 2014 and checked to see how many were charged with new crimes over the next two years, the same benchmark used by the creators of the algorithm."

ProPublica analyzed data for Broward County in the State of Florida, and found the risk assessment scores to be unreliable:

"... in forecasting violent crime: Only 20 percent of the people predicted to commit violent crimes actually went on to do so. When a full range of crimes were taken into account — including misdemeanors such as driving with an expired license — the algorithm was somewhat more accurate than a coin flip. Of those deemed likely to re-offend, 61 percent were arrested for any subsequent crimes within two years."

ProPublica also found biases based upon race:

"In forecasting who would re-offend, the algorithm made mistakes with black and white defendants at roughly the same rate but in very different ways. The formula was particularly likely to falsely flag black defendants as future criminals, wrongly labeling them this way at almost twice the rate as white defendants. White defendants were mislabeled as low risk more often than black defendants."

Northpointe logo ProPublica re-checked the analysis. Same results. Northpointe, the for-profit company that produced the Broward County, Florida risk scores disagreed:

"... it criticized ProPublica’s methodology and defended the accuracy of its test: “Northpointe does not agree that the results of your analysis, or the claims being made based upon that analysis, are correct or that they accurately reflect the outcomes from the application of the model.” Northpointe’s software is among the most widely used assessment tools in the country. The company does not publicly disclose the calculations used to arrive at defendants’ risk scores, so it is not possible for either defendants or the public to see what might be driving the disparity... Northpointe’s core product is a set of scores derived from 137 questions that are either answered by defendants or pulled from criminal records. Race is not one of the questions..."

Formed in 1989, Northpointe is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volaris Group. Northpointe works with a variety ot federal, state, and local justice agencies in the United States and Canada. The company's website also states that it also works with policy makers.

Besides Northpointe, several companies provide risk assessment tools to courts and the judicial system. The National Center For State Courts (NCSC) provides a list of risk assessment tools (Adobe PDF).

All of this points to a larger problem suggesting risk scores still haven't been adequately studied nor techniques vetted:

"There have been few independent studies of these criminal risk assessments. In 2013, researchers Sarah Desmarais and Jay Singh examined 19 different risk methodologies used in the United States and found that “in most cases, validity had only been examined in one or two studies” and that “frequently, those investigations were completed by the same people who developed the instrument.” Their analysis of the research through 2012 found that the tools “were moderate at best in terms of predictive validity,”... there have been some attempts to explore racial disparities in risk scores. One 2016 study examined the validity of a risk assessment tool, not Northpointe’s, used to make probation decisions for about 35,000 federal convicts. The researchers, Jennifer Skeem at University of California, Berkeley, and Christopher T. Lowenkamp from the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, found that blacks did get a higher average score but concluded the differences were not attributable to bias."

I wonder if the biases found started in the data rather than in the algorithm. The algorithm may have been developed and tested using existing prison populations which are known to be skewed, plus overly aggressive policing via school-to-prison pipelines and for-profit prisons in many states. Both the State of Florida and Broward County have histories with school-to-prison pipelines.

Plus, It seems crazy to make decisions about persons' lives based upon scores without knowing how the scores were calculated, and without adequate research or vetting of techniques. Transparency matters.

Thoughts? Opinions?