145 posts categorized "Statistics" Feed

Survey: Online Harassment In 2017

What is online life like for many United States residents? A recent survey by the Pew Research Center provides a good view. 41 percent of adults surveyed have personally experienced online harassment. Even more, 66 percent, witnessed online harassment directed at others.

Types of behaviors. Online Harassment 2017 survey. Pew Research. Click to view larger version The types of online harassment behaviors vary from the less severe (e.g., offensive name calling, efforts to embarrass someone) to the more severe (e.g., physical threats, harassment over a sustained period, sexual harassment, stalking.) 18 percent of survey participants -- nearly one out of every fiver persons -- reported that they had experienced severe behaviors.

Americans reported that social networking sites are the most common locations for online harassment experiences. Of the 41 percent of survey participants who personally experienced online harassment, most of those (82 percent) cited a single site and 58 percent cited "social media."

The reasons vary. 14 percent of survey respondents reported they had been harassed online specifically because of their politics; 9 percent reported that they were targeted due to their physical appearance; e percent said they were targeted due to their race or ethnicity; and 8 percent said they were targeted due to their gender. 5 percent said they were targeted due their religion, and 3 percent said they were targeted due to their sexual orientation.

Some groups experience online harassment more than others. Pew found that younger adults, under age 30, are more likely to experience severe forms of online harassment. Similarly, younger adults are also more likely to witness online harassment targeting others. Pew also found:

"... one-in-four blacks say they have been targeted with harassment online because of their race or ethnicity, as have one-in-ten Hispanics. The share among whites is lower (3%). Similarly, women are about twice as likely as men to say they have been targeted as a result of their gender (11% vs. 5%). Men, however, are around twice as likely as women to say they have experienced harassment online as a result of their political views (19% vs. 10%). Similar shares of Democrats and Republicans say they have been harassed online..."

The impacts upon victims vary, too:

"... ranging from mental or emotional stress to reputational damage or even fear for one’s personal safety. At the same time, harassment does not have to be experienced directly to leave an impact. Around one-quarter of Americans (27%) say they have decided not to post something online after witnessing the harassment of others, while more than one-in-ten (13%) say they have stopped using an online service after witnessing other users engage in harassing behaviors..."

Different attitudes by gender. Online Harassment 2017 survey. Pew Research. Click to view larger version And, attitudes vary by gender. See the table on the right. More women than men consider online harassment a "major problem," and men prioritize free speech over online safety while women prioritize safety first. And, 83 percent of young women (e.g., ages 18 - 29) viewed online harassment as a major problem. Perhaps most importantly, persons who have "faced severe forms of online harassment differ in experiences, reactions, and attitudes."

Pew Research also found that persons who experience severe forms of online harassment, "are more likely to be targeted for personal characteristics and to face offline consequences." So, what happens online doesn't necessarily stay online.

The perpetrators vary, too. Of the 41 percent of survey participants who personally experienced online harassment, 34 percent said the perpetrator was a stranger, and 31 percent said they didn't know the perpetrator's real identity. Also, 26 percent said the perpetrator was an acquaintance, followed by friend (18 percent), family member, (11 percent), former romantic partner (7 percent), and coworker (5 percent).

Pew Research found that the number of Americans who experienced online harassment has increased slightly from 35 percent during a 2014 survey. Pew Research Center surveyed 4,248 U.S. adults during January 9 - 23, 2017. 

Next Steps
62 percent of survey participants view online harassment as a major problem. 5 percent do not consider it a problem at all. People who have experienced severe forms of online harassment said that they have already taken action. Those actions include a mix: a) set up or adjust privacy settings for their profiles in online services, b) reported offensive content to the online service, c) responded directly to the harasser, d) offered support to others targeted, e) changed information in their online profiles, and f) stopped using specific online services.

Views vary about which entities bear responsibility for solutions. 79 percent of survey respondents said that online services have a duty to intervene when harassment occurs on their service. 35 percent believe that better policies and tools from online services are the best way to address online harassment.

Meanwhile, 60 said that bystanders who witness online harassment "should play a major role in addressing this issue," and 15 percent view peer pressure as an effective solution. 49 said law enforcement should play a major role in addressing online harassment, while 31 said stronger laws are needed. Perhaps most troubling:

"... a sizable proportion of Americans (43%) say that law enforcement currently does not take online harassment incidents seriously enough."

Among persons who have experienced severe forms of online harassment, 55 percent said that law enforcement does not take the incidents seriously enough. Compare that statistic with this: nearly three-quarters (73 percent) of young men (ages 18 - 29) feel that offensive online content is taken too seriously.

And Americans are highly divided about how to balance safety concerns versus free:

"When asked how they would prioritize these competing interests, 45% of Americans say it is more important to let people speak their minds freely online; a slightly larger share (53%) feels that it is more important for people to feel welcome and safe online.

Americans are also relatively divided on just how seriously offensive content online should be treated. Some 43% of Americans say that offensive speech online is too often excused as not being a big deal, but a larger share (56%) feel that many people take offensive content online too seriously."

With such divergent views, one wonders if the problem of online harassment can be easily solved. What are your opinions about online harassment?


Study: Police Officers Talk More Respectfully To White Residents Than Non-White Residents

Researchers analyzed the language recorded by body cameras during police stops, and concluded that police officers talk more respectfully to White residents than non-White residents. The study, published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, included 183 hours of body camera footage taken during 981 routine traffic stops in April 2014 by 245 different officers in the Oakland Police Department.

The researchers found:

"Police officers speak significantly less respectfully to black than to white community members in everyday traffic stops, even after controlling for officer race, infraction severity, stop location, and stop outcome. This paper presents a systematic analysis of officer body-worn camera footage, using computational linguistic techniques to automatically measure the respect level that officers display to community members. This work demonstrates that body camera footage can be used as a rich source of data rather than merely archival evidence, and paves the way for developing powerful language-based tools for studying and potentially improving police–community relations. "

The study included random selections of 312 utterances spoken to black residents and 102 utterances spoken to white residents. Next, 10 volunteers rated each interaction without knowing the names, races, or identifying information of the police officers. Then, the researchers used a computer model to analyze the ratings based upon scientific literature about respect.

Why this study is important:

"Despite the rapid proliferation of body-worn cameras, no law enforcement agency has systematically analyzed the massive amounts of footage these cameras produce. Instead, the public and agencies alike tend to focus on the fraction of videos involving high-profile incidents, using footage as evidence of innocence or guilt in individual encounters... Previous research on police–community interactions has relied on citizens’ recollection of past interactions or researcher observation of officer behavior to assess procedural fairness. Although these methods are invaluable, they offer an indirect view of officer behavior and are limited to a small number of interactions...

Key findings from the full report:

"... white community members are 57% more likely to hear an officer say one of the most respectful utterances in our dataset, whereas black community members are 61% more likely to hear an officer say one of the least respectful utterances in our dataset. (Here we define the top 10% of utterances to be most respectful and the bottom 10% to be least respectful.) This work demonstrates the power of body camera footage as an important source of data, not just as evidence, addressing limitations with methodologies that rely on citizens’ recollection of past interactions..."

Perhaps, most importantly (bold emphasis added):

"The racial disparities in officer respect are clear and consistent, yet the causes of these disparities are less clear. It is certainly possible that some of these disparities are prompted by the language and behavior of the community members themselves, particularly as historical tensions in Oakland and preexisting beliefs about the legitimacy of the police may induce fear, anger, or stereotype threat. However, community member speech cannot be the sole cause of these disparities... We observe racial disparities in officer respect even in police utterances from the initial 5% of an interaction, suggesting that officers speak differently to community members of different races even before the driver has had the opportunity to say much at all."

"Regardless of cause, we have found that police officers’ interactions with blacks tend to be more fraught, not only in terms of disproportionate outcomes (as previous work has shown) but also interpersonally, even when no arrest is made and no use of force occurs. These disparities could have adverse downstream effects, as experiences of respect or disrespect in personal interactions with police officers play a central role in community members’ judgments of how procedurally fair the police are as an institution, as well as the community’s willingness to support or cooperate with the police."

The findings indicate training opportunities for law enforcement, and apply only to the Oakland, California police department. Additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about other police departments. CNN interviewed Rob Voigt, the lead author of the study at Stanford University:

"We're also hoping it inspires police departments to consider cooperating with researchers more. And facilitating this kind of analysis of body camera footage will help police departments improve their relationship with the community, and it will give them techniques for better communication... When people feel they're respected by the police, they are more likely to trust the police, they are more likely to cooperate with the police, and so on and so forth. So we have reason to expect that these differences that we find have real-world effects."

I look forward to future studies. What are your opinions?


Study: Many Consumers Don't Secure Their Mobile Devices

Many consumers in the United States don't take the steps experts recommend to secure their mobile devices. Pew Research reported the findings of a recent survey:

"More than a quarter (28%) of smartphone owners say they do not use a screen lock or other security features to access their phone. And while a majority of smartphone users say they have updated their phone’s apps or operating system, about 40% say they only update when it’s convenient for them. Meanwhile, some users forgo updating their phones altogether: Around one-in-ten  smartphone owners report they never update their phone’s operating system (14%) or update the apps on their phone (10%)."

And, there are differences by the age of phone owners:

"owners ages 65 and older are much less likely than adults younger than 65 to use a screen lock and regularly update their phone’s apps and operating system (13% vs. 23%). Smartphone users 65 and older are also more than twice as likely as younger users to report that they do not take any of these actions to secure their phones (8% vs. 3%)..."

Other risky behaviors consumers perform:

"... 54% of internet users use public Wi-Fi networks, and many of these users are performing sensitive activities such online shopping (21%) or online banking (20%)."


Study: Almost 40 Percent of U.S. Smartphone Owners Use Voice Recognition

According to a recent study by Parks Associations, a market research and consulting company, 39 percent of smartphone owners in the United States use some form of voice recognition (e.g., Siri, Google Now). The usage is higher (more than 50 percent) for iPhone owners compared to Android owners (less than 33 percent). Harry Wang, Director of Health & Mobile Product Research at Parks Associations said:

“Smartphone penetration has reached 86% of U.S. broadband households, so it is a mature market, with users, particularly younger consumers and iOS users, exploring more intelligent features and interfaces, including voice control... The growing consumer interest in voice control features is driving this technology into new IoT areas... Following Apple’s lead with Siri, other brands have created ‘personalities’ for their voice-control solutions, like Alexa for Amazon Echo and Cortana for Windows Phones."

Usage is higher among younger persons. 48 percent of smartphone users ages 18-24, use voice recognition software, usage of the “Siri” voice recognition software increased from 40 to 52 percent between 2013 and 2015. In total, about 15 percent of all U.S. broadband households use Siri.

About 70 percent of smartphone owners who use voice recognition are satisfied. 38 percent said they are very satisfied, and 9 percent said they are not satisfied.

Additional findings about U.S. smartphone users:

  • More than 70 percent watch short streaming video clips, and more than 40 percent watch long streaming videos.
  • 36 percent use WiFi calling.
  • 26 percent use a payment app for purchases at retail stores, and
  • 24 percent stream video from their phones to a second screen (e.g., TV, PC).

Learn more in the "360 View: Mobility and the App Economy" report, or the press release, by Parks Associates.


Honolulu Newspaper Studies Police Officer Misconduct

On Tuesday, the Honolulu Star-Advertiser reported the results of its survey:

"Nearly 1 of every 6 current Honolulu Police Department officers have been taken to court over criminal or civil allegations of wrongdoing, ranging from excessive force to domestic abuse, according to a first-of-its-kind analysis by the Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Just since 2010, an officer has been arrested or prosecuted at the rate of one every 5.7 weeks... more than 330 officers, or nearly 16 percent of the 2,100-member squad, have been named as defendants in criminal cases, temporary restraining orders and wrongful-conduct lawsuits since joining the force. Most of the lawsuits alleged on-duty civil rights violations, while most of the TROs involved off-duty conduct... about 5 percent of officers account for a disproportionate share of complaints against police..."

Some convictions have resulted:

"Of the 55 criminal cases from the past six years that the newspaper examined, more than half resulted in convictions or deferred pleas of guilty or no contest. The deferrals give the defendants the opportunity to keep their records clean if they stay out of trouble for a certain length of time. Most of the 18 officers whose pleas were deferred remain on the job. Only one of the 14 who were convicted is still an HPD officer."

How this compares to other cities in the United States:

"Although the department has not been hit by the racial strife over high-profile fatalities that has rocked some mainland police forces, it has had a steady dose of controversial cases, including ones that have cost taxpayers millions of dollars in lawsuit settlements... Although the Star-Advertiser was unable to compare HPD’s 1-in-6 ratio with rates at other comparable departments, it was able to crunch numbers from a recent national study that Stinson and several of his Bowling Green colleagues published on officer arrests. HPD did not fare well. Using Google-based searches of news articles, the researchers compiled data on arrests from 2005 to 2011 involving officers at hundreds of law enforcement agencies across the country. Based on those data, HPD had the 10th-worst rate per 100,000 population among the more than 80 police departments with at least 1,000 full-time officers. It was 11th worst on a per-1,000 officers basis."

Kudos to the Star-Advertiser for an informative report. Transparency matters. Accountability matters.

Read the Bowling Green State University (BGSU) announcement about the April, 2016 study by Philip Matthew Stinson, Sr., J.D, Ph.D. and associates titled, "Police Integrity Lost: A Study of Law Enforcement Officers Arrested" (Adobe PDF).

The Star-Advertiser's report seems to highlight an opportunity for newspapers across the United States. I am sure that readers are curious about how their local police department rates. Ideally, follow-up studies will also include data about convictions. What do you think?


Survey: Daily Newspaper Readership

Who reads newspapers in the United States? Do people read print versions, or has readership migrated to online versions? How has this changed over time? In its "State of the News Media 2016" report, Pew Research released results about the demographics of daily newspaper readership:

Percent of Adults Reading Daily Newspapers
Age Group 1999 2007 2015
18 - 24 42 33 16
25 - 34 44 34 17
35 - 44 54 43 21
45 - 54 63 53 28
55 - 64 69 59 38
65+ 72 66 50

Source: Pew Research Center - Daily Readership By Age - June, 2016

Percent of Adults Reading Daily Newspapers
Education Level 1999 2007 2015
High School Graduate 54 46 27
Some College 59 50 31
College Graduate 63 53 31
Some Post Graduate 68 59 38
Post Graduate Degree 60 62 39

Source: Pew Research Center - Daily Readership By Education Level - June, 2016

Percent of Adults Reading Daily Newspapers
Ethnic Group 1999 2007 2015
White 58 49 31
Black/African-American 51 42 27
Asian 51 41 22
Spanish/Hispanic Origin 39 31 18
Other 52 43 22

Source: Pew Research Center - Daily Readership By Ethnic Group - June, 2016

About overall newspaper readership, 51 percent read the print version exclusively, 5 percent read the desktop version only, another 5 percent 5% read only the mobile version, and about 7 percent read both the mobile and desktop versions.

However, some readers are subscribers and some aren't. The latter group reads newspaper articles at other sites:

"... looking at newspaper subscribers as the only readers of newspaper content misses an important part of the story. The share of newspaper readers who report reading a newspaper in digital form, or who have digital subscriptions, is not the same as the share of Americans more broadly who come across individual stories hosted on a newspaper’s website as they surf the web. The findings reported above are based on survey questions asked of individuals who self-reported reading a newspaper online or in print in the past 30 days. However, it does not include everyone who lands upon a newspaper website while searching for news information or following a link from an email or social networking post. These consumers of individual bits of information may not remember having read a newspaper, or have even realized that they did. (We have found that most people who read an article on a website do not read any other articles on that site in a given month, suggesting that this kind of incidental readership is common.) Indeed, as revealed in the digital audience section below, when it comes to all newspaper website visitors – not just subscribers – the newspapers analyzed all had more digital traffic than print subscribers."

The "State of the News Media 2016" report also includes information about cable news, local TV news, network news, online news, alternative weeklies, podcasts, and more.


In The Modern Era, More Young Adults Live With Their Parents

As a parent of three children who are now adults, this news item caught my attention. The Pew Research Center reported:

"Broad demographic shifts in marital status, educational attainment and employment have transformed the way young adults in the U.S. are living, and an analysis of census data highlights the implications of these changes for the most basic element of their lives – where they call home. In 2014, for the first time in more than 130 years, adults ages 18 to 34 were slightly more likely to be living in their parents’ home than they were to be living with a spouse or partner in their own household."

The data:

  Percent of Adults
Ages 18 to 34
Living Arrangement 1880 1940 1960 2014
Living at home with parents 30 35 20 32.1
Married or co-habitation in own household 45 46 62 31.6
Living alone, single parents, and other head of household 3 3 5 14
Other living arrangement 22 16 13 22

Several factors contributed to this shift:

"The first is the postponement of, if not retreat from, marriage. The median age of first marriage has risen steadily for decades. In addition, a growing share of young adults may be eschewing marriage altogether. A previous Pew Research Center analysis projected that as many as one-in-four of today’s young adults may never marry. While cohabitation has been on the rise, the overall share of young adults either married or living with an unmarried partner has substantially fallen since 1990.

In addition... employed young men are much less likely to live at home than young men without a job, and employment among young men has fallen significantly in recent decades. The share of young men with jobs peaked around 1960 at 84%. In 2014, only 71% of 18- to 34-year-old men were employed. Similarly with earnings, young men’s wages (after adjusting for inflation) have been on a downward trajectory since 1970 and fell significantly from 2000 to 2010. As wages have fallen, the share of young men living in the home of their parent(s) has risen."

And there are differences by gender:

"For men ages 18 to 34, living at home with mom and/or dad has been the dominant living arrangement since 2009. 'In 2014, 28 percent of young men were living with a spouse or partner in their own home, while 35 percent were living in the home of their parent(s). For their part, young women are on the cusp of crossing over this threshold: They are still more likely to be living with a spouse or romantic partner (35%) than they are to be living with their parent(s) (29%). In 2014, more young women (16%) than young men (13%) were heading up a household without a spouse or partner. This is mainly because women are more likely than men to be single parents living with their children..."

Additional findings:

"In 2014, 40 percent of 18- to 34-year-olds who had not completed high school lived with parent(s), the highest rate observed since the 1940 Census when information on educational attainment was first collected.

Young adults in states in the South Atlantic, West South Central and Pacific United States have recently experienced the highest rates on record of living with parent(s).

With few exceptions, since 1880 young men across all races and ethnicities have been more likely than young women to live in the home of their parent(s)."

The methodology included decennial census data and large samples, typically 1 percent of young adults nationwide.


Courts To Use Risk Scores More Frequently. Analysis Found Scores Unreliable And Racial Bias

ProPublica investigated the use of risk assessment scores by the courts and justice system in the United States:

"... risk assessments — are increasingly common in courtrooms across the nation. They are used to inform decisions about who can be set free at every stage of the criminal justice system, from assigning bond amounts... to even more fundamental decisions about defendants’ freedom. In Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin, the results of such assessments are given to judges during criminal sentencing. Rating a defendant’s risk of future crime is often done in conjunction with an evaluation of a defendant’s rehabilitation needs. The Justice Department’s National Institute of Corrections now encourages the use of such combined assessments at every stage of the criminal justice process. And a landmark sentencing reform bill currently pending in Congress would mandate the use of such assessments in federal prisons."

Some important background:

"In 2014, then U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder warned that the risk scores might be injecting bias into the courts. He called for the U.S. Sentencing Commission to study their use... The sentencing commission did not, however, launch a study of risk scores. So ProPublica did, as part of a larger examination of the powerful, largely hidden effect of algorithms in American life. [ProPublica] obtained the risk scores assigned to more than 7,000 people arrested in Broward County, Florida, in 2013 and 2014 and checked to see how many were charged with new crimes over the next two years, the same benchmark used by the creators of the algorithm."

ProPublica analyzed data for Broward County in the State of Florida, and found the risk assessment scores to be unreliable:

"... in forecasting violent crime: Only 20 percent of the people predicted to commit violent crimes actually went on to do so. When a full range of crimes were taken into account — including misdemeanors such as driving with an expired license — the algorithm was somewhat more accurate than a coin flip. Of those deemed likely to re-offend, 61 percent were arrested for any subsequent crimes within two years."

ProPublica also found biases based upon race:

"In forecasting who would re-offend, the algorithm made mistakes with black and white defendants at roughly the same rate but in very different ways. The formula was particularly likely to falsely flag black defendants as future criminals, wrongly labeling them this way at almost twice the rate as white defendants. White defendants were mislabeled as low risk more often than black defendants."

Northpointe logo ProPublica re-checked the analysis. Same results. Northpointe, the for-profit company that produced the Broward County, Florida risk scores disagreed:

"... it criticized ProPublica’s methodology and defended the accuracy of its test: “Northpointe does not agree that the results of your analysis, or the claims being made based upon that analysis, are correct or that they accurately reflect the outcomes from the application of the model.” Northpointe’s software is among the most widely used assessment tools in the country. The company does not publicly disclose the calculations used to arrive at defendants’ risk scores, so it is not possible for either defendants or the public to see what might be driving the disparity... Northpointe’s core product is a set of scores derived from 137 questions that are either answered by defendants or pulled from criminal records. Race is not one of the questions..."

Formed in 1989, Northpointe is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volaris Group. Northpointe works with a variety ot federal, state, and local justice agencies in the United States and Canada. The company's website also states that it also works with policy makers.

Besides Northpointe, several companies provide risk assessment tools to courts and the judicial system. The National Center For State Courts (NCSC) provides a list of risk assessment tools (Adobe PDF).

All of this points to a larger problem suggesting risk scores still haven't been adequately studied nor techniques vetted:

"There have been few independent studies of these criminal risk assessments. In 2013, researchers Sarah Desmarais and Jay Singh examined 19 different risk methodologies used in the United States and found that “in most cases, validity had only been examined in one or two studies” and that “frequently, those investigations were completed by the same people who developed the instrument.” Their analysis of the research through 2012 found that the tools “were moderate at best in terms of predictive validity,”... there have been some attempts to explore racial disparities in risk scores. One 2016 study examined the validity of a risk assessment tool, not Northpointe’s, used to make probation decisions for about 35,000 federal convicts. The researchers, Jennifer Skeem at University of California, Berkeley, and Christopher T. Lowenkamp from the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, found that blacks did get a higher average score but concluded the differences were not attributable to bias."

I wonder if the biases found started in the data rather than in the algorithm. The algorithm may have been developed and tested using existing prison populations which are known to be skewed, plus overly aggressive policing via school-to-prison pipelines and for-profit prisons in many states. Both the State of Florida and Broward County have histories with school-to-prison pipelines.

Plus, It seems crazy to make decisions about persons' lives based upon scores without knowing how the scores were calculated, and without adequate research or vetting of techniques. Transparency matters.

Thoughts? Opinions?


Breach Notifications Rise More Than 40 Percent In New York

Breach notifications involving New York State residents have risen more than 40 percent compared to a year ago. Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman announced on Wednesday that his office:

"... has received 459 data breach notices from the first of the year through May 2, 2016, as compared with 327 through the same time last year. In the year 2015 alone, the office received 809 data breach notices. The office is expecting to receive well over 1000 notices for the year, a new record."

The New York State Information Security Breach & Notification Act requires companies to provide notice to the Attorney General office and to affected consumers. Companies use an online submission form. Previously, notifications were submitted via postal mail, fax, or email.

The Attorney General's office released a data breach report in July 2014 which found:

"... the number of reported data security breaches in New York more than tripled between 2006 and 2013. In that same period, 22.8 million personal records of New Yorkers were exposed in nearly 5,000 data breaches, which cost the public and private sectors in New York upward of $1.37 billion in 2013. In addition, the report also found that hacking intrusions – in which third parties gain unauthorized access to data stored on a computer system – were the leading cause of data security breaches, accounting for roughly 40 percent of all breaches."

If you receive a breach notification letter, the Identity Theft Resource Center advises consumers to (links added):

"1. Call the three credit bureaus (Experian, Equifax, and Transunion) and request a 90-day fraud alert be placed on your credit reports.

2. Request your annual free credit report from each of the aforementioned credit bureaus and review them for any inaccuracies...

3. If you do find any inaccuracies, call the three credit bureaus and request a security freeze be placed on your credit reports. This may cost a nominal fee depending on the state that you are in and does not allow new credit lines to be processed until you personally unfreeze your credit. Even if you do not find any inaccuracies, you may want to consider putting a security freeze on your credit as a precautionary measure.

4. File your tax returns as early as possible to avoid an identity thief filing a tax return under your name in order to receive fraudulent tax refunds.

5. Contact the Social Security Administration and request your wage report to ensure that an identity thief has not reported fraudulent wages which you may have to pay taxes on if not resolved.

6. For more details on what to do if you have received a data breach notification letter, please read our ITRC Fact Sheet FS 129."

Learn how to spot fake breach notices from scammers. To help residents confirm breach notifications, A few states (Maryland, New Hampshire, Vermont, Wisconsin) post online breach notices they have received.

Comments? Opinions? If you know of any states that post breach notices online, please tell us below.


Report: Lawsuits Resulting From Corporate Data Breaches

Chart 1: Bryan Cave LLP: 2016 Breach Litigation Report. Click to view larger version

This week, the law firm of Bryan Cave LLP released its annual review of litigation related to data breaches. 83 cases were filed, representing a 25 percent decline compared to the prior year. Other Key findings from the 2016 report:

"Approximately 5% of publicly reported data breaches led to class action litigation. The conversion rate has remained relatively consistent as compared to prior years... When multiple filings against single defendants are removed, there were only 21 unique defendants during the Period. This indicates a continuation of the “lightning rod” effect noted in the 2015 Report, wherein plaintiffs’ attorneys are filing multiple cases against companies connected to the largest and most publicized breaches, and are not filing cases against the vast majority of other companies that experience data breaches..."

Slightly more than half (51 percent) of all cases were national. The most popular locations were lawsuits were filed included the Northern District of Georgia, the Central District of California, the Northern District of California, and the Northern District of Illinois. However:

"Choice of forum, however, continues to be primarily motivated by the states in which the company-victims of data breaches are based."

Charges of negligence were cited in 75 percent of lawsuits. Which industry were frequently sued and which weren't:

"... the medical industry was disproportionately targeted by the plaintiffs’ bar. While only 24% of publicly reported breaches related to the medical industry, nearly 33% of data breach class actions targeted medical or insurance providers. The overweighting of the medical industry was due, however, to multiple lawsuits filed in connection with two large scale breaches... There was a 76% decline in the percentage of class actions involving the breach of credit cards... The decline most likely reflects a reduction in the quantity of high profile credit card breaches, difficulties by plaintiffs’ attorneys to prove economic harm following such breaches, and relatively small awards and settlements.."

57 percent of cases included sensitive personal information (e.g., Social Security numbers), 23 percent of cases included debit/credit card information, and 18 percent of cases included credit reports. The law firm reviewed lawsuits occurring during a 15-month period ending in December, 2015. Data sources included Westlaw Pleadings, Westlaw Dockets, and PACER databases.

Historically, some lawsuits by consumers haven't succeeded when courts have dismissed cases because plaintiffs weren't able to prove injuries. According to the Financial Times:

"However, decisions from a number of high-profile cases are likely to make it easier for consumers to bring suits against companies in the event of a data breach... For example, in July 2015, the Seventh US Circuit Court of Appeals, overturning a previous judgment, ruled that customers of Neiman marcus could potentially sue the retailer because they were at substantial risk of identity theft or becoming victims of fraud..."

Learn more about the Neiman Marcus class-action. Criminals hack corporate databases specifically to reuse (or resell) victims' stolen sensitive personal and payment information to obtain fraudulent credit, drain bank accounts, and/or hack online accounts -- injuries which often don't happen immediately after the breach. That's what identity thieves do. Hopefully, courts will take a broader, more enlightened view.

I look forward to reading future reports which discuss drivers' licenses data and children's online privacy, and the Internet of Things (ioT). View the "2016 Data Breach Litigation Report" by Bryan Cave LLP. Below is another chart from the report.

Chart 2: Bryan Cave LLP: 2016 Breach Litigation Report. Click to view larger version


Report: Significant Security Risks With Healthcare And Financial Services Mobile Apps

Arxan Technologies logo Arxan Technologies recently released its fifth annual report about the state of application security. This latest report also highlighted some differences between how information technology (I.T.) professionals and consumers view the security of healthcare and financial services mobile apps. Overall, Arxan found critical vulnerabilities:

"84 percent of the US FDA-approved apps tested did not adequately address at least two of the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Mobile Top 10 Risks. Similarly, 80 percent of the apps tested that were formerly approved by the UK National Health Service (NHS) did not adequately address at least two of the OWASP Mobile Top 10 Risks... 95 percent of the FDA-approved apps, and 100 percent of the apps formerly approved by the NHS, lacked binary protection, which could result in privacy violations, theft of personal health information, and tampering... 100 percent of the mobile finance apps tested, which are commonly used for mobile banking and for electronic payments, were shown to be susceptible to code tampering and reverse-engineering..."

Some background about the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA revised its guidelines for mobile medical apps in September, 2015. The top of that document clearly stated, "Contains Nonbinding Regulations." The document also explained which apps the FDA regulates (link added):

"Many mobile apps are not medical devices (meaning such mobile apps do not meet the definition of a device under section 201(h) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act)), and FDA does not regulate them. Some mobile apps may meet the definition of a medical device but because they pose a lower risk to the public, FDA intends to exercise enforcement discretion over these devices (meaning it will not enforce requirements under the FD&C Act). The majority of mobile apps on the market at this time fit into these two categories. Consistent with the FDA’s existing oversight approach that considers functionality rather than platform, the FDA intends to apply its regulatory oversight to only those mobile apps that are medical devices and whose functionality could pose a risk to a patient’s safety if the mobile app were to not function as intended. This subset of mobile apps the FDA refers to as mobile medical apps."

The Arxan report found that consumers are concerned about app mobile security:

80 percent of mobile app users would change providers if they knew the apps they were using were not secure. 82 percent would change providers if they knew alternative apps offered by similar service providers were more secure."

Arxan commissioned a a third party which surveyed 1,083 persons in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan during November, 2015. 268 survey participants were I.T. professionals and 815 participants were consumers. Also, Arxan hired Mi3 to test mobile apps during October and November, 2015. Those tests included 126 health and financial mobile apps covering both the Apple iOS and Android platforms, 19 mobile health apps approved by the FDA, and 15 mobile health apps approved3 by the UK NHS.

One difference in app security perceptions between the two groups: 82 percent of I.T. professionals believe "everything is being done to protect my apps" while only 57 percent of consumers hold that belief. To maintain privacy and protect sensitive personal information, Arxan advises consumers to:

  1. Buy apps only from reputable app stores,
  2. Don't "jail break" your mobile devices, and
  3. Demand that app developers disclose upfront the security methods and features in their apps.

The infographic below presents more results from the consolidated report. Three reports by Arxan Technologies are available: consolidated, healthcare, and financial services.

Arxan Technologies. 5th Annual State of App Security infographic
Infographic reprinted with permission.


Facts About Debt Collection Scams And Other Consumer Complaints

Logo for Consumer Financial Protection Bureau The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) recently released a report about debt collection scams. The report is based upon more than 834,00 complaints filed by consumers nationally with the CFPB about financial products and services: checking and savings accounts, mortgages, credit cards, prepaid cards, consumer loans, student loans, money transfers, payday loans, debt settlement, credit repair, and credit reports. Complaints about debt collection scams accounted for 26 percent of all complaints.

The most frequent scam are attempts to collect money from consumers for debts they don't owe. This accounted for 38 percent of all debt-collection-scam complaints submitted. This included harassment:

"Consumers complained about receiving multiple calls weekly and sometimes daily from debt collectors. Consumers often complained that the collector continued to call even after being repeatedly told that the alleged debtor could not be contacted at the dialed number. Consumers also complained about debt collectors calling their places of employment... Consumers complained that they were not given enough information to verify whether or not they owed the debt that someone was attempting to collect. "

The two companies with the most complaints:

"... were Encore Capital Group and Portfolio Recovery Associates, Inc. Both companies, which are among the largest debt buyers in the country, averaged over 100 complaints submitted to the Bureau each month between October and December 2015. In 2015, the CFPB took enforcement actions against these two large debt buyers for using deceptive tactics to collect bad debts."

Compared to a year ago, debt collection complaints increased the most in Indiana (38 percent), Arizona (27 percent), and New Hampshire (26 percent) during December 2015 through February 2016. Debt collection complaints decreased the most in Maine (-34 percent), Wyoming (-26 percent), and North Dakota (-23 percent). And:

"Of the five most populated states, California (10 percent) experienced the greatest percentage increase and Illinois (-4 percent) experienced the greatest percentage decrease in debt collection complaints..."

The report lists 20 companies with the most debt-collection complaints during October through December 2015. The top five companies with with average monthly complaints about debt collection are Encore Capital Group (139.3), Portfolio Recovery Associates, Inc. (112.3), Enhanced recovery Company, LLC (65.7), Transworld Systems Inc. (63.7), and Citibank (54.7). This top-20 list also includes several banks: Synchrony Bank, Capital One, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Wells Fargo.

While the March Monthly Complaint Report by the CFPB focused upon debt collection complaints, it also provides plenty of detailed information about all categories of complaints. From December 2015 through February 2016, the CFPB received on average every month about 6,856 debt collection complaints, 4,211 mortgage complaints, 3,556 credit reporting complaints, 2,021 complaints about bank accounts or services, and 1,995 complaints about credit cards. Most categories showed increased complaint volumes compared to the same period a year ago. Only two categories showed a decline in average monthly complaints: credit reporting and payday loans. Debt collection complaints were up 6 percent.

Compared to a year ago, average monthly complaint volume (all categories) increased in 40 states and decreased in 11 states. The top five states with the largest increases (all categories) included Connecticut (31 percent), Kansas (30 percent), Georgia (25 percent), Louisiana (25 percent), and Indiana (24 percent). The top five states with the largest decreases (all categories) included Hawaii (-25 percent), Maine (-19 percent), South Dakota (-14 percent), District of Columbia (-8 percent), and Idaho (-6 percent). Also:

"Of the five most populated states, New York (12 percent) experienced the greatest complaint volume percentage increase, and Texas (-8 percent) experienced the greatest complaint volume percentage decrease from December 2014 to February 2015 to December 2015 to February 2016."

The chart below lists the 10 companies with the most complaints (all categories) during October through December, 2015:

Companies with the most complaints. CFPB March 2016 Monthly Complaints Report. Click to view larger image

The "Other" category includes consumer loans, student loans, prepaid cards, payday loans, prepaid cards, money transfers, and more. During this three-month period, complaints about these companies totaled 46 percent of all complaints. Consumers submit complaints about the national big banks covering several categories. According to the CFPB March complaints report (links added):

"By average monthly complaint volume, Equifax (988), Experian (841), and TransUnion (810) were the most-complained-about companies for October - December 2015. Equifax experienced the greatest percentage increase in average monthly complaint volume (32 percent)... Ocwen experienced the greatest percentage decrease in average monthly complaint volume (-18 percent)... Empowerment Ventures (parent company of RushCard) debuted as the 10th most-complained-about company..."

To learn more about the CFPB, there are plenty of posts in this blog. Simply enter "CFPB" in the search box in the right column.


American Adults Who Don't Use The Internet. Who They Are And Why

A few weeks ago, the Pew Research Center released the results of survey about adults in the United States that don't use the Internet. You're probably thinking: everyone uses the Internet. Right? Afterall, 64 percent of Americans have smartphones and 19 percent of them use their phones to go online.

Actually, a substantial chunk of the population doesn't go online. The Pew Research Center survey described American adults who don't use the Internet.

Overall, in 2015 about 15 percent of American adults don't use the Internet. Across the years, things have gotten better. The comparable figure in 2000 was 48 percent, and 24 percent in 2010. However, in 2015 equal portions of men (15 percent) and women (15 percent) don't use the Internet. The numbers vary more by race, age, income, and residence:

U.S. Adults% Don't Use The Internet
White
Black
Hispanic
Asian
14
20
18
5
Less than $30K
$30K - $49.9K
$50K - $74.9K
$75K or more
25
14
5
3
18 - 29
30 - 49
50 - 64
65 or older
3
6
19
39
Less than high school
High school
Some college
College graduates
33
23
9
4
Urban
Suburban
Rural
13
13
24

The 2015 findings are based upon three surveys of 5,005 adults in the United States. In 2013, Pew Research Center surveyed American adults who don't use the Internet:

Reason For Not Using The Internet% Adults
Not interested 21
Don't have a computer 13
Too difficult or frustrating 10
Don't know how / don't have the skills 8
Too old to learn 8
Don't have access 7
Too expensive 6
Don't need it / don't want it 6
Consider it a waste of time 4
Physically unable (e.g., poor eyesight, disabled) 4
Too busy / don't have the time 3
Worried about privacy / spam / spyware / hackers 3

Of these adults that don't use the Internet:

  • 44 percent have asked a friend or family member to look up something online for them,
  • 23 percent live in households were somebody else in that household uses the Internet, and
  • 14 percent used the Internet previously and stopped.

What to make of this? I look at the people who said Internet access is too expensive or they don't have access. While overall our country appears strong, there are areas of the country were citizens lack one or several services we all take for granted. There are Internet deserts, broadband deserts, banking deserts, public library deserts, and food deserts.


Charts: Gun vs. Terrorism Deaths, Comparisons By State

In a news conference yesterday after the latest shooting at a school, President Obama challenged the news media to report facts comparing gun versus terrorism deaths in the USA. Vox published an interactive chart comparing deaths:

Chart comparing gun versus terrorism deaths in the USA. Click to view larger image

And, there's plenty more. Vox provided several charts and statistics about gun violence and gun ownership in the United States:

"America's unique problem with gun violence: American has six times as many firearm homicides as Canada, and 15 times as many as Germany... America has 4.4 percent of the world's population, but almost half of the civilian-owned guns around the world... There is a mass shooting almost every day in America... States with more guns have more gun deaths... States with tighter gun control laws have fewer gun-related deaths... In states with more guns, more police officers are also killed on duty..."

The chart comparing gun ownership and gun-related deaths by state:

Chart comparing gun ownership versus gun deaths by state. Click to view larger image

To learn more, browse the charts Vox has assembled.


Study: Companies Pay Their Senior Executives More Than They Pay In Federal Taxes

The Institute For Policy Studies released the results of a study of executive compensation and corporate taxes. Researchers analyzed the pay of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) in the largest corporation and the highest paid CEOs. Key findings were:

"Of America’s 30 largest corporations, seven (23 percent) paid their CEOs more than they paid in federal income taxes last year... Of America’s 100 highest-paid CEOs, 29 received more in pay last year than their company paid in federal income taxes—up from 25 out of the top 100 in our 2010 and 2011 surveys."

The pay of those 29 CEOs averaged $32 million. The study also investigated tax shelters. The 29 corporations that paid more to their CEOs than federal income taxes also operated:

"... 237 subsidiaries in tax havens. The company with the most subsidiaries in tax havens was Abbott Laboratories, with 79. The pharmaceutical firm’s CEO paycheck was $4 million larger than its IRS bill in 2013. Of the 29 firms, only 12 reported U.S. losses in 2013. At these 12 unprofitable firms, CEO pay averaged $36.6 million—more than three times the $11.7 million national average for large company CEOs..."

The corporations are familiar brands and names:

"The company that received the largest tax refund was Citigroup, which owes its existence to taxpayer bailouts. In 2013, Citi paid its CEO $18 million while pocketing an IRS refund of $260 million. Three firms have made the list in all three years surveyed. Boeing, Chesapeake Energy, and Ford Motors paid their CEO more than Uncle Sam in 2010, 2011, and 2013."

It would seem that the shareholders at these 12 unprofitable firms either don't care or have allowed the boards of directors to authorize exorbitant pay packages in the face of unprofitable performances. If those seven largest, profitable corporations had paid the full statutory tax rate of 35 percent, they would have paid $25.9 billion in federal taxes, which could have been used instead for:

"... Restoring elementary and high school teaching jobs lost to recession and austerity budget cuts... Resurfacing 22,240 miles of four-lane roads... Running the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs for two months... Making pre-K [educaton] universal..."

The authors, Scott Klinger and Sarah Anderson, concluded:

"For corporations to reward one individual, no matter how talented, more than they are contributing to the cost of all the public services needed for business success reflects the deep flaws in our corporate tax system. Rather than more tax breaks, Congress should focus on addressing these deep flaws by cracking down on the use of tax havens, eliminating wasteful corporate subsidies, and closing loopholes that encourage excessive executive compensation."

Some specific actions Congress could take (links added):

"... the CUT Loopholes Act would close a variety of loopholes that facilitate tax dodging through offshoring. This bill would treat the foreign subsidiaries of U.S. corporations, whose management and control occur primarily in the United States, as U.S. domestic corporations for income tax purposes. It would also force corporations to take the same expense for stock option grants on their tax returns as they report on their shareholder books... Passing this legislation would reduce the incentive to shift profits and jobs overseas and could raise an additional $189 billion over ten years without raising corporate tax rates... Corporate Tax Fairness Act (S. 250 and H.R. 694)... would eliminate the ability of corporations to defer tax payments on their offshore profits. Instead, all worldwide profits earned by U.S. corporations would be immediately taxable in the United States. Firms would receive a dollar-for-dollar tax credit for any taxes paid to foreign governments. Corporations earning their profits in places like the United Kingdom, Germany, or France, where effective corporate tax rates are similar to U.S. rates, would pay little if any additional tax to the U.S. government. But firms stashing their profits in offshore tax havens would be forced to pay up for their years of tax haven abuse. The bill would raise an estimated $590 billion over ten years."

Download the report, "Fleecing Uncle Sam" (Adobe PDF). A copy is also available here.


More People Get Their News From Twitter And Facebook

Facebook logo Facebook is not just about lolcats, selfies, and epic partying. More people get their news from Facebook and Twitter.

Pew Research reported several findings from a recent survey of 2,035 U.S. adults. 63 percent of users get their news from the Twitter and Facebook. Both social networking services saw increases. In 2013, it was 52 percent for Twitter users and 47 percent for Facebook users. The number of adults using both services (17 percent use Twitter and 66 percent use Facebook) remained fairly constant during this period.

There were more key findings:

"Twitter news users are more likely than their counterparts on Facebook to report seeing news about four out of 11 topics: national government and politics (72% vs. 61%), international affairs (63% vs. 51%), business (55% vs. 42%) and sports (70% vs. 55%)... The rise in the share of social media users getting news on Facebook or Twitter cuts across nearly every demographic group... When it comes specifically to news and information about government and politics, Facebook users are more likely to post and respond to content, while Twitter users are more likely to follow news organizations."

Twitter logo Pew Research Center conducted the survey jointly with the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Both social networking sites have focused upon breaking news content. Twitter will soon launch:

"... its long-rumored news feature, “Project Lightning.” The feature will allow anyone, whether they are a Twitter user or not, to view a feed of tweets, images and videos about live events as they happen, curated by a bevy of new employees with “newsroom experience.” And, in early 2015, Twitter purchased and launched the live video-streaming app Periscope...  in May, Facebook launched Instant Articles, a trial project that allows media companies to publish stories directly to the Facebook platform... in late June, Facebook started introducing its “Trending” sidebar to allow users to filter by topic and see only trending news about politics, science and technology, sports or entertainment."


Guestworker Programs, Reshoring, And Skilled Workers. The Impacts Upon American Workers

In March 2015, Ron Hira, a Research Associate and Associate Professor of Public Policy at Howard University, testified before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee hearing about immigration reforms needed to protect skilled American workers. That classification includes workers in various high-tech jobs. Mr. Hira testified:

"Congress and multiple Administrations have inadvertently created a highly lucrative business model of bringing in cheaper H-1B workers to substitute for Americans. There are mainframe-sized loopholes built into the H-1B program’s design... Some of these loopholes are intentional, some are not, but they all add up to a system that encourages employers to exploit the H-1B program for cheap labor. Given the extraordinarily high profits involved in using guestworkers instead of Americans, it should surprise no one that many employers are taking advantage of this business model and lobbying to expand it... Myth: Employers must prove there are no qualified American workers before hiring an H-1B... Myth: H-1B workers cannot be cheaper than Americans because employers must pay the “prevailing wage”... Myth: Compliance with the program’s rules that protect American workers is robust..."

You may have believed those myths. Now you know otherwise. That abuse of the H-1B visa program may affect you, an employed family member, or somebody you know. How? Mr. Hira explained:

"... This is not just adversely affecting a few workers. The H-1B program is very large with approximately 120,000 new workers admitted annually. Once admitted those workers can remain in the U.S. up to six years. While no one knows exactly how many H-1Bs are currently in the country, analysts estimate the stock of H-1B workers at 600,000..."

Of course, the corporations claim that they can't find skilled American workers. Mr. Hira explained what's really happening and how it extends beyond H-1B visa recipients:

"Most of the H-1B program is now being used to import cheaper foreign guestworkers, replacing American workers, and undercutting their wages... There are hundreds of thousands of additional guestworkers admitted on L-1 and OPT visas, and they too are harming the job prospects of American workers. Because Congress never expected L-1 and OPT workers to be potential competition to American workers those programs have virtually no rules to protect American workers. That expectation was incorrect. As with the H-1B program, these guestworker visa programs are now being used too to replace and undercut American workers."

Sadly, government agencies also perpetuate the problem:

"The recent case of Southern California Edison (SCE) illustrates the most flagrant abuses of the H-1B program and exposes the flaws in the protections for American workers. As reported by ComputerWorld and the Los Angeles Times, SCE is replacing its American workers with H-1B workers hired by outsourcers Tata and Infosys. To add insult to injury, SCE forced its American workers to train their H-1B replacements as a condition of receiving their severance packages. There could not be a clearer case of the H-1B program being used to harm American workers’ wages and working conditions."

You may remember a similar incident at Disney where fired American workers were forced to train their foreign replacements before leaving. Pew Charitable Trusts reported about other alleged abuses:

"A computer programmer from India was promised a $46,500 salary in New York, plus tuition to study for a master’s degree. Instead, his annual pay averaged less than $13,000 and his degree was withheld when his employer failed to make the promised tuition payments. In California, veteran computer workers at a health care company say they were forced to train cheaper foreign replacements before being laid off, even though the replacements were hired under a program meant to fill critical jobs when employers can’t find qualified U.S. citizens or permanent residents who hold green cards to fill them."

I encourage you to visit the Pew Charitable trusts article, because it features an interactive map where you can discover the number H-1B workers in your state.

Some readers in denial may be thinking: I have a college degree, or I work in a high-tech job such as writing code for websites and mobile apps. It won't affect me. I'm immune.

Don't fool yourself. It will affect you. It probably already has. Former U.S. Labor Secretary and professor Robert Reich summarized the problem in a June 16 Facebook post (links added):

"... the [U.S.] Senate is considering a bill to raise the number of skilled foreign workers that can come to the U.S. on H-1B visas... It’s a bad idea. When Secretary of Labor, I was responsible for implementing the H-1B visa program – and again and again found high-tech companies claiming they needed skilled workers from abroad because they couldn’t find ...such workers in the U.S. -- when in reality they just didn’t want to pay higher wages to Americans with those same skills... A study released in April by the National Bureau of Economic Research found that H-1B visa recipients crowd out American workers, lowering wages and raising profits without increasing productivity. A 2013 analysis by the Economic Policy Institute found there are more than enough U.S.-born high-tech workers to fill jobs here, and that companies have been using foreign workers to cut costs, knowing they’re easy to intimidate because if they lose their jobs they have to leave the U.S."

You can read this study by researchers at the University of Notre Dame and University of California at Berkeley (Adobe PDF). They concluded:

"We find some evidence that additional H-1Bs lead to lower average employee wages while raising firm profits... we robustly find that new H-1Bs cause no significant increase in firm employment..."

Think about that. Firms pay less to other employees. So, even if you aren't replaced, you may be paid less or your annual wage increases are smaller. The savings went to the company's profits, and to senior executives rewarded for those savings via bonuses.

I have experienced the high-tech guest-worker situation. As a freelancer with a master's degree and plenty of experience, I work with a variety of digital agencies to produce websites for corporate clients. Several years ago, I subcontracted with an agency to work on a website redesign project. That project included a client company's internal website (called an "Intranet") to automate and streamline its human resources processes, forms, and performance reviews for both managers and employees. I was hired to perform the usability work and lead several focus-group sessions with the client company's employees and managers.

After meeting my project team members, I saw immediately the situation. Another person and I were the only two American workers on this project team. The rest of the team included workers from India to perform the project management, documentation, website development, quality assurance, and coding work. Plenty of my peers at other digital agencies, and some as freelancers, regularly perform all of these tasks. So, there's no shortage of qualified, experienced American workers.

During this three-month project, the foreign guest workers flew in from Mumbai as needed for their roles, and shared rooms in a rented home (cheaper than a hotel). When their role on the project was finished, they either returned to Mumbai or traveled to another U.S. location for their next project. The math probably went like this: the digital agency probably charged it's corporate client an average of about $120 per hour across all project team members. The digital agency paid me $90.00 per hour, paid the foreign workers maybe $40.00 per hour, and pocketed the difference. So, the agency's profits were $30.00 per hour for American workers like me, but a far higher $80.00 per hour with foreign workers.

This looked to me like a clear corporate choice aided by a willing digital agency. You'd never know it happened unless you worked directly on the project.

Multiply my experience by thousands of others and you get an idea of how vast the problem is. Corporations, politicians, and news media that defend this employment abuse may announce that thousands of jobs are returning to the USA (often called "reshoring"), but you now know what's really happening. Informed voters question announcements and demand to know if the returning jobs are pre-filled with foreign guest-workers while the employers don't bother looking to hire American workers. You now know more to contact your elected officials and demand that they explain what they are doing to protect American workers.

When returning jobs are pre-filled with guest workers, then there's really no benefit to USA citizens and plenty of downside: unemployment levels remain high, it is harder to find full-time work, and for workers over 55 years of age it can be impossible to find full-time work. You now know it's a pro-business free-for-all at the expense of middle-class and skilled workers.

What are your opinions of skilled guest workers? Of the H-1B visa program? Have you had to train foreign guest workers?


Two Graphics About Wage And Wealth Inequality In The USA

Today's blog post includes two factual graphics. The first graphic compares the bonuses (not salaries, but the year-end bonuses in addition to salaries) paid to executives at Wall Street firms to the earnings of all full-time minimum-wage workers nationwide:

Comparison of Wall Street bank bonuses to minimum wage earnings

The current Federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. Given a 40 hour work week, that equals about $15,000 a year. Tough to live on that. Meanwhile, the average bonus for Wall Street executives was about $170,000 per person. Read this detailed discussion about the bonus culture on Wall Street:

"Wall Street bonuses rose 3 percent last year, despite a 4.5 percent decline in industry profits. The size of the bonus pool was 27 perfect higher than in 2009, the last time Congress increased the minimum wage... The bonus pool is so large it would be far more than enough to lift all 2.9 million restaurant servers and bartenders, all 1.5 million home health and personal care aides, or all 2.2 million fast food preparation and serving workers up to $15 per hour."

Yes, the playing field is tilted this badly. This is another reason to move your money from big banks to smaller, regional banks or to credit unions.

The second graphic (see below) compares the actual distribution of wealth (the top bar) to what Americans perceive it to be (the second bar), and to what Americans think it should be (the bottom bar). Former U.S. Labor Secretary and professor Robert Reich presented this graphic on his Facebook page:

How consumers view inequality compared to the reality

Mr. Reich said on March 10:

"If more Americans knew the truth, we'd have a better shot at changing what must be changed -- raising the minimum wage, expanding the EITC, raising the cap on income subject to Social Security taxes, limiting the deductibility of CEO pay, making it easier to form labor unions, and increasing taxes at the top to pay for world-class education for all our kids. So, please, spread the truth."

Now, you know the truth. Tell your friends, family, coworkers, and classmates. Not only is the situation worse than you thought, but it's easier for the wealthy to retain their wealthy since investments are taxed at a lower rates than wages. (Or depending upon your point-of-view, more difficult for wage earners to amass wealth.) And, some politicians want to eliminate the Federal minimum wage supposedly to increase employment, but more likely to facilitate a race to the bottom in some states to lower wages further and increase company profits.

Notice a trend that benefits the people who are already wealthy?

Take a moment to study both graphics. You can select either graphic to view a larger version. Remember this when you vote.


Study: Web Pages At News Sites Load More Slowly Than At Other Sites

Adweek reported the results of a study about website performance:

"Research by Web performance monitoring company Catchpoint Systems suggests that news sites may be in trouble because publishers are putting too many assets on their Web pages, forcing the content and the advertisements to load too slowly... search engines loaded the quickest. Travel-related pages and Internet retailers loaded at about the same speeds, with retailers loading slightly faster. But overall, news sites tended to load the slowest..."

Wesite pages at the Financial Times took about 29.5 seconds to load. Website pages at Bloomberg averaged about 27 seconds, while pages at CNN averaged 18.8 seconds and The Wall Street Journal averaged 18.6 seconds.

Have you noticed slow load times at websites? If so, please share which sites. I've found pages often load slowly at The Huffington Post. I doubt that most users would wait half a minute for a web page to load. I wouldn't. Would you? Do you wait or go elsewhere?


Pew Research Reviews Key Statistics From 2014

Pew Reviewed published 14 statistics from 2014 that it views as noteworthy. I found several items from the list particularly interesting.

First, privacy is still a problem. A clear majority of American adult consumers -- 91 percent responded agree or strongly agree -- believe that they have lost control of how their personal information is collected and used by private companies:

Second, a clear majority -- 80% said they agree or strongly agree -- that Americans should be concerned about government monitoring of e-mail messages and Internet usage.

Third, since 2006 more Americans value highly Internet access and their mobile phones, compared to other devices:

You can bet that Internet service providers are aware of this, and will prices their services accordingly.