This is a subject I probably should have written about sooner. On November 1 and 2, 2007, the FTC hosted a conference entitled “Behavioral Advertising: Tracking, Targeting, and Technology.” The event included consumer advocates, industry representatives, technology experts, and academics to address consumer protection issues.
In December 2007, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released its proposed rules document for companies who wish to engage in behavioral advertising (also called behavioral targeting). I am not discussing in this post whether or not behavioral advertising works. There are several case studies where companies have evaluated how best to perform behavioral advertising. Rather, this post explores some of the consumer privacy and data security issues.
When you visit web sites today, many companies display ads related to the content of the site pages you view. Some companies include software that saves information to the HTTP cookies file on your computer, which is used by your web browser software. We consumers have the choice about how we surf the web. You can set your web browser software to accept or prohibit web sites from accessing the HTTP cookie file. It's been this way for many years.
Behavioral advertising is not new. A few companies and newspapers have used behavioral targeting for years. Of course, there also are advertising networks which focus on behavioral targeting, including NebuAd's offering for ISPs. You can read several blogs about behavioral advertising.
Previously, companies have used behavioral advertising based on the pages you visit within a single web site. What's changing is that companies plan to use behavioral advertising based on both the pages you visit within a single web site (e.g., On-site targeting) and across several web sites (e.g., Network targeting), plus the search keywords you enter at search engine web sites.
So participants at the above conference discussed with the FTC possible rules to keep things manageable. In its proposed rules document, the FTC defined behavioral advertising as:
"... the tracking of a consumer’s activities online – including the searches the consumer has conducted, the web pages visited, and the content viewed – in order to deliver advertising targeted to the individual consumer’s interests."
In my opinion, the Decision Science News blog offers a better definition:
"Behavioral Targeting is the ability to deliver ads to consumers based upon their recent behavior viewing web pages, shopping online for products and services, typing keywords into a search engine or a combination of all three. 'Interest-Based Targeting allows large-brand advertisers… to target more precisely the audience they are trying to reach with the message they are trying to convey'..."
In its proposed rules document, the FTC described the benefits as:
"... behavioral advertising provides benefits to consumers in the form of free web content and personalized ads that many consumers value... The benefits include, for example, access to newspapers and information from around the world, provided free because it is subsidized by online advertising; tailored ads that facilitate comparison shopping for the specific products that consumers want; and, potentially, a reduction in ads that are irrelevant to consumers’ interests and that may therefore be unwelcome."
The FTC proposed several rules to solve several concerns:
|Concern||Proposed FTC Rule|
|1. Transparency and consumer control: many criticize existing disclosures as difficult to understand, inaccessible, and overly technical and long. They also stated that, with clearer disclosures, consumers can make more informed decisions about whether or not they want personalized advertising or, alternatively, whether they would prefer not to do business at particular websites.||Every website where data is collected for behavioral advertising should provide a clear, concise, consumer-friendly, and prominent statement that (1) data about consumers’ activities online is being collected at the site for use in providing advertising about products and services tailored to individual consumers’ interests, and (2) consumers can choose whether or not to have their information collected for such purpose. The website should also provide consumers with a clear, easy-to-use, and accessible method for exercising this option.|
|2a. Reasonable security, and limited data retention, for consumer data: many expressed concerns that data collected for behavioral advertising may not be adequately secured and could find its way into the hands of criminals or other wrongdoers.||Any company that collects and/or stores consumer data for behavioral advertising should provide reasonable security for that data. Consistent with the data security laws and the FTC’s data security enforcement actions, such protections should be based on the sensitivity of the data, the nature of a company’s business operations, the types of risks a company faces, and the reasonable protections available to a company.|
|2b. Reasonable security, and limited data retention, for consumer data: many expressed concerns about the length of time that companies retain consumer data collected for behavioral advertising. The longer that data is stored in company databases, the greater the risks to the data.||Companies should retain data only as long as is necessary to fulfill a legitimate business or law enforcement need. FTC staff commends recent efforts by some industry members to reduce the time period for which they are retaining data. However, FTC staff seeks comment on whether companies can and should reduce their retention periods further.|
|4. Affirmative express consent to (or prohibition against) using sensitive data for behavioral advertising: the use of sensitive data (for example, information about health conditions, sexual orientation, or children’s activities online) to target advertising, particularly when the data can be traced back to a particular individual. They state that consumers may not welcome such advertising even if the information is not personally identifiable; they may view it as invasive or, in a household where multiple users access one computer, it may reveal confidential information about an individual to other members.||Companies should only collect sensitive data for behavioral advertising if they obtain affirmative express consent from the consumer to receive such advertising. FTC staff seeks specific input on (1) what classes of information should be considered sensitive, and (2) whether using sensitive data for behavioral targeting should not be permitted, rather than subject to consumer choice.|
|Using tracking data for purposes other than behavioral advertising: consumer tracking data collected and stored for behavioral advertising could be used for other potentially harmful purposes. To the extent that the collection of data for behavioral advertising is invisible to consumers, such secondary uses of the data may be especially so.||FTC staff seeks additional information about the potential uses of tracking data beyond behavioral advertising and, in particular: (1) which secondary uses raise concerns, (2) whether companies are in fact using data for these secondary purposes, (3) whether the concerns about secondary uses are limited to the use of personally identifiable data or also extend to non-personally identifiable data, and (4) whether secondary uses, if they occur, merit some form of heightened protection.|
The FTC has extended the deadline for submissions to April 11, 2008. Comments can include any concerns you have, changes you feel are necessary to the proposed FTC rules, the types of consumers' personal data you believe should be considered sensitive, and anything else you feel is relevant. Send your comments to the FTC at:
Federal Trade Commission
Room H-135 (Annex N)
600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20580