125 posts categorized "Surveys" Feed

Some Surprising Facts About Facebook And Its Users

Facebook logo The Pew Research Center announced findings from its latest survey of social media users:

  • About two-thirds (68%) of adults in the United States use Facebook. That is unchanged from April 2016, but up from 54% in August 2012. Only Youtube gets more adult usage (73%).
  • About three-quarters (74%) of adult Facebook users visit the site at least once a day. That's higher than Snapchat (63%) and Instagram (60%).
  • Facebook is popular across all demographic groups in the United States: 74% of women use it, as do 62% of men, 81% of persons ages 18 to 29, and 41% of persons ages 65 and older.
  • Usage by teenagers has fallen to 51% (at March/April 2018) from 71% during 2014 to 2015. More teens use other social media services: YouTube (85%), Instagram (72%) and Snapchat (69%).
  • 43% of adults use Facebook as a news source. That is higher than other social media services: YouTube (21%), Twitter (12%), Instagram (8%), and LinkedIn (6%). More women (61%) use Facebook as a news source than men (39%). More whites (62%) use Facebook as a news source than nonwhites (37%).
  • 54% of adult users said they adjusted their privacy settings during the past 12 months. 42% said they have taken a break from checking the platform for several weeks or more. 26% said they have deleted the app from their phone during the past year.

Perhaps, the most troubling finding:

"Many adult Facebook users in the U.S. lack a clear understanding of how the platform’s news feed works, according to the May and June survey. Around half of these users (53%) say they do not understand why certain posts are included in their news feed and others are not, including 20% who say they do not understand this at all."

Facebook users should know that the service does not display in their news feed all posts by their friends and groups. Facebook's proprietary algorithm -- called its "secret sauce" by some -- displays items it thinks users will engage with = click the "Like" or other emotion buttons. This makes Facebook a terrible news source, since it doesn't display all news -- only the news you (probably already) agree with.

That's like living life in an online bubble. Sadly, there is more.

If you haven't watched it, PBS has broadcast a two-part documentary titled, "The Facebook Dilemma" (see trailer below), which arguable could have been titled, "the dark side of sharing." The Frontline documentary rightly discusses Facebook's approaches to news, privacy, its focus upon growth via advertising revenues, how various groups have used the service as a weapon, and Facebook's extensive data collection about everyone.

Yes, everyone. Obviously, Facebook collects data about its users. The service also collects data about nonusers in what the industry calls "shadow profiles." CNet explained that during an April:

"... hearing before the House Energy and Commerce Committee, the Facebook CEO confirmed the company collects information on nonusers. "In general, we collect data of people who have not signed up for Facebook for security purposes," he said... That data comes from a range of sources, said Nate Cardozo, senior staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. That includes brokers who sell customer information that you gave to other businesses, as well as web browsing data sent to Facebook when you "like" content or make a purchase on a page outside of the social network. It also includes data about you pulled from other Facebook users' contacts lists, no matter how tenuous your connection to them might be. "Those are the [data sources] we're aware of," Cardozo said."

So, there might be more data sources besides the ones we know about. Facebook isn't saying. So much for greater transparency and control claims by Mr. Zuckerberg. Moreover, data breaches highlight the problems with the service's massive data collection and storage:

"The fact that Facebook has [shadow profiles] data isn't new. In 2013, the social network revealed that user data had been exposed by a bug in its system. In the process, it said it had amassed contact information from users and matched it against existing user profiles on the social network. That explained how the leaked data included information users hadn't directly handed over to Facebook. For example, if you gave the social network access to the contacts in your phone, it could have taken your mom's second email address and added it to the information your mom already gave to Facebook herself..."

So, Facebook probably launched shadow profiles when it introduced its mobile app. That means, if you uploaded the address book in your phone to Facebook, then you helped the service collect information about nonusers, too. This means Facebook acts more like a massive advertising network than simply a social media service.

How has Facebook been able to collect massive amounts of data about both users and nonusers? According to the Frontline documentary, we consumers have lax privacy laws in the United States to thank for this massive surveillance advertising mechanism. What do you think?


When Fatal Crashes Can't Be Avoided, Who Should Self-Driving Cars Save? Or Sacrifice? Results From A Global Survey May Surprise You

Experts predict that there will be 10 million self-driving cars on the roads by 2020. Any outstanding issues need to be resolved before then. One outstanding issue is the "trolley problem" - a situation where a fatal vehicle crash can not be avoided and the self-driving car must decide whether to save the passenger or a nearby pedestrian. Ethical issues with self-driving cars are not new. There are related issues, and some experts have called for a code of ethics.

Like it or not, the software in self-driving cars must be programmed to make decisions like this. Which person in a "trolley problem" should the self-driving car save? In other words, the software must be programmed with moral preferences which dictate which person to sacrifice.

The answer is tricky. You might assume: always save the driver, since nobody would buy self-driving car which would kill their owners. What if the pedestrian is crossing against a 'do not cross' signal within a crosswalk? Does the answer change if there are multiple pedestrians in the crosswalk? What if the pedestrians are children, elders, or pregnant? Or a doctor? Does it matter if the passenger is older than the pedestrians?

To understand what the public wants -- expects -- in self-driving cars, also known as autonomous vehicles (AV), researchers from MIT asked consumers in a massive, online global survey. The survey included 2 million people from 233 countries. The survey included 13 accident scenarios with nine varying factors:

  1. "Sparing people versus pets/animals,
  2. Staying on course versus swerving,
  3. Sparing passengers versus pedestrians,
  4. Sparing more lives versus fewer lives,
  5. Sparing men versus women,
  6. Sparing the young versus the elderly,
  7. Sparing pedestrians who cross legally versus jaywalking,
  8. Sparing the fit versus the less fit, and
  9. Sparing those with higher social status versus lower social status."

Besides recording the accident choices, the researchers also collected demographic information (e.g., gender, age, income, education, attitudes about religion and politics, geo-location) about the survey participants, in order to identify clusters: groups, areas, countries, territories, or regions containing people with similar "moral preferences."

Newsweek reported:

"The study is basically trying to understand the kinds of moral decisions that driverless cars might have to resort to," Edmond Awad, lead author of the study from the MIT Media Lab, said in a statement. "We don't know yet how they should do that."

And the overall findings:

"First, human lives should be spared over those of animals; many people should be saved over a few; and younger people should be preserved ahead of the elderly."

These have implications for policymakers. The researchers noted:

"... given the strong preference for sparing children, policymakers must be aware of a dual challenge if they decide not to give a special status to children: the challenge of explaining the rationale for such a decision, and the challenge of handling the strong backlash that will inevitably occur the day an autonomous vehicle sacrifices children in a dilemma situation."

The researchers found regional differences about who should be saved:

"The first cluster (which we label the Western cluster) contains North America as well as many European countries of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christian cultural groups. The internal structure within this cluster also exhibits notable face validity, with a sub-cluster containing Scandinavian countries, and a sub-cluster containing Commonwealth countries.

The second cluster (which we call the Eastern cluster) contains many far eastern countries such as Japan and Taiwan that belong to the Confucianist cultural group, and Islamic countries such as Indonesia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.

The third cluster (a broadly Southern cluster) consists of the Latin American countries of Central and South America, in addition to some countries that are characterized in part by French influence (for example, metropolitan France, French overseas territories, and territories that were at some point under French leadership). Latin American countries are cleanly separated in their own sub-cluster within the Southern cluster."

The researchers also observed:

"... systematic differences between individualistic cultures and collectivistic cultures. Participants from individualistic cultures, which emphasize the distinctive value of each individual, show a stronger preference for sparing the greater number of characters. Furthermore, participants from collectivistic cultures, which emphasize the respect that is due to older members of the community, show a weaker preference for sparing younger characters... prosperity (as indexed by GDP per capita) and the quality of rules and institutions (as indexed by the Rule of Law) correlate with a greater preference against pedestrians who cross illegally. In other words, participants from countries that are poorer and suffer from weaker institutions are more tolerant of pedestrians who cross illegally, presumably because of their experience of lower rule compliance and weaker punishment of rule deviation... higher country-level economic inequality (as indexed by the country’s Gini coefficient) corresponds to how unequally characters of different social status are treated. Those from countries with less economic equality between the rich and poor also treat the rich and poor less equally... In nearly all countries, participants showed a preference for female characters; however, this preference was stronger in nations with better health and survival prospects for women. In other words, in places where there is less devaluation of women’s lives in health and at birth, males are seen as more expendable..."

This is huge. It makes one question the wisdom of a one-size-fits-all programming approach by AV makers wishing to sell cars globally. Citizens in clusters may resent an AV maker forcing its moral preferences upon them. Some clusters or countries may demand vehicles matching their moral preferences.

The researchers concluded (emphasis added):

"Never in the history of humanity have we allowed a machine to autonomously decide who should live and who should die, in a fraction of a second, without real-time supervision. We are going to cross that bridge any time now, and it will not happen in a distant theatre of military operations; it will happen in that most mundane aspect of our lives, everyday transportation. Before we allow our cars to make ethical decisions, we need to have a global conversation to express our preferences to the companies that will design moral algorithms, and to the policymakers that will regulate them... Our data helped us to identify three strong preferences that can serve as building blocks for discussions of universal machine ethics, even if they are not ultimately endorsed by policymakers: the preference for sparing human lives, the preference for sparing more lives, and the preference for sparing young lives. Some preferences based on gender or social status vary considerably across countries, and appear to reflect underlying societal-level preferences..."

And the researchers advised caution, given this study's limitations (emphasis added):

"Even with a sample size as large as ours, we could not do justice to all of the complexity of autonomous vehicle dilemmas. For example, we did not introduce uncertainty about the fates of the characters, and we did not introduce any uncertainty about the classification of these characters. In our scenarios, characters were recognized as adults, children, and so on with 100% certainty, and life-and-death outcomes were predicted with 100% certainty. These assumptions are technologically unrealistic, but they were necessary... Similarly, we did not manipulate the hypothetical relationship between respondents and characters (for example, relatives or spouses)... Indeed, we can embrace the challenges of machine ethics as a unique opportunity to decide, as a community, what we believe to be right or wrong; and to make sure that machines, unlike humans, unerringly follow these moral preferences. We might not reach universal agreement: even the strongest preferences expressed through the [survey] showed substantial cultural variations..."

Several important limitations to remember. And, there are more. It didn't address self-driving trucks. Should an AV tractor-trailer semi  -- often called a robotruck -- carrying $2 million worth of goods sacrifice its load (and passenger) to save one or more pedestrians? What about one or more drivers on the highway? Does it matter if the other drivers are motorcyclists, school buses, or ambulances?

What about autonomous freighters? Should an AV cargo ship be programed to sacrifice its $80 million load to save a pleasure craft? Does the size (e.g., number of passengers) of the pleasure craft matter? What if the other craft is a cabin cruiser with five persons? Or a cruise ship with 2,000 passengers and a crew of 800? What happens in international waters between AV ships from different countries programmed with different moral preferences?

Regardless, this MIT research seems invaluable. It's a good start. AV makers (e.g., autos, ships, trucks) need to explicitly state what their vehicles will (and won't do). Don't hide behind legalese similar to what exists today in too many online terms-of-use and privacy policies.

Hopefully, corporate executives and government policymakers will listen, consider the limitations, demand follow-up research, and not dive headlong into the AV pool without looking first. After reading this study, it struck me that similar research would have been wise before building a global social media service, since people in different countries or regions having varying preferences with online privacy, sharing information, and corporate surveillance. What are your opinions?


Survey: Most Home Users Satisfied With Voice-Controlled Assistants. Tech Adoption Barriers Exist

Recent survey results reported by MediaPost:

"Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant have the highest satisfaction levels among mobile users, each with an 85% satisfaction rating, followed by Siri and Bixby at 78% and Microsoft’s Cortana at 77%... As found in other studies, virtual assistants are being used for a range of things, including looking up things on the internet (51%), listening to music (48%), getting weather information (46%) and setting a timer (35%)... Smart speaker usage varies, with 31% of Amazon device owners using their speaker at least a few times a week, Google Home owners 25% and Apple HomePod 18%."

Additional survey results are available at Digital Trends and Experian. PWC found:

"Only 10% of surveyed respondents were not familiar with voice-enabled products and devices. Of the 90% who were, the majority have used a voice assistant (72%). Adoption is being driven by younger consumers, households with children, and households with an income of >$100k... Despite being accessible everywhere, three out of every four consumers (74%) are using their mobile voice assistants at home..."

Consumers seem to want privacy when using voice assistants, so usage tends to occur at home and not in public places. Also:

"... the bulk of consumers have yet to graduate to more advanced activities like shopping or controlling other smart devices in the home... 50% of respondents have made a purchase using their voice assistant, and an additional 25% would consider doing so in the future. The majority of items purchased are small and quick.. Usage will continue to increase but consistency must improve for wider adoption... Some consumers see voice assistants as a privacy risk... When forced to choose, 57% of consumers said they would rather watch an ad in the middle of a TV show than listen to an ad spoken by their voice assistant..."

Consumers want control over the presentation of advertisements by voice assistants. Control options desired include skip, select, never while listening to music, only at pre-approved times, customized based upon interests, seamless integration, and match to preferred brands. 38 percent of survey respondents said that they, "don't want something 'listening in' on my life all the time."

What are your preferences with voice assistants? Any privacy concerns?


The Overlooked Weak Link in Election Security

[Editor's note: today's guest post, by reporters at ProPublica, discusses voting and elections security within the United States. It is reprinted with permission.]

By Jack Gillum and Jessica Huseman, ProPublica

More than one-third of counties that are overseeing elections in some of the most contested congressional races this November run email systems that could make it easy for hackers to log in and steal potentially sensitive information.

A ProPublica survey found that official email accounts used by 11 county election offices, which are in charge of tallying votes in 12 key U.S. House of Representatives races from California to Ohio, could be breached with only a user name and password — potentially allowing hackers to vacuum up confidential communications or impersonate election administrators. Cybersecurity experts recommend having a second means of verifying a user’s identity, such as typing in an additional code from a smartphone or card, to thwart intruders who have gained someone’s login credentials through trickery or theft. This system, known as two-factor verification, is available on many commercial email services.

“Humans are horrific at creating passwords, which is why ‘password’ is the most commonly used password,” said Joseph Lorenzo Hall, the chief technologist at the Center for Democracy and Technology in Washington, D.C., who has pushed for security fixes in the voting process. “This means increasingly we need something other than passwords to secure access to our accounts, especially email, which tends to undergird all our other accounts.”

The email vulnerabilities emerged in ProPublica’s survey of election security in 27 counties encompassing all or part of roughly 40 congressional districts that the Cook Political Report has said are toss-ups. These contests could determine if Democrats take control the U.S. House of Representatives, where the party needs to pick up about two dozen seats to flip the current Republican majority. Of the 12 districts in counties with less protected email systems, Republicans are seeking re-election in 10. The other two are open seats where incumbents are stepping down.

Much attention has focused on the potential to hack voting machines. In the “Voting Village” at the Def Con security conference this summer in Las Vegas, hackers sought to compromise a handful of machines. But lax protections for internet-connected systems like email servers may pose just as serious a threat.

The lack of two-factor verification may have helped Russian hackers ultimately gain access to the Democratic National Committee’s network in April 2016, according to a federal indictment. Prosecutors say a Democratic campaign employee unwittingly put her password into a spearphishing email – a targeted message meant to dupe users into sharing their login information. Russian hackers also tricked John Podesta, Hillary Clinton’s campaign chairman, into handing over his password, enabling an embarrassing leak of his emails weeks before the election.

Even a program created by the Kansas secretary of state’s office to prevent voter fraud was vulnerable to snooping, ProPublica reported last year. The program, Crosscheck, sought to identify voters casting ballots in more than one state by comparing the rolls across states. But its files were hosted on an insecure server, and program officials regularly shared user names and passwords—many of them overly simplistic—for the site by email as late as 2017. Crosscheck paused operations in 2018 because of concerns about security and accuracy, and it is unclear when it will begin matching rolls again. The Kansas Secretary of State’s office did not return a request for comment.

A different kind of cyber-attack in 2016 manipulated the software code behind Illinois’ voter-registration system to expose the personal details of thousands of people. Matt Dietrich, a spokesman for the state board of elections, said the flaws that allowed the penetration have been fixed. Special counsel Robert Mueller charged 12 Russians this past July in connection with an unspecified breach that Illinois officials said was very likely the attack on the voter registration database.

“This wasn’t about to steal votes, but to create havoc,” Dietrich said. “If you can steal a voter database, and then go in and mess up the poll books that election judges rely on to check off voters, that’s going to be the story: That the United States can’t run a competent election.”

Using a checklist developed by Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, ProPublica asked county election officials about their email systems, as well as about cybersecurity protections for voting machines and computers that check in voters at polling sites. Voter registration is generally handled at the state level, while counties administer elections and are responsible for protecting voting machines and verifying end-of-night vote tallies that determine winners.

Funded by local taxes, counties are generally run by elected commissioners and often have centralized IT staff overseeing email services for departments ranging from the medical examiner to public works. As a result, elections officials have to compete for IT resources and attention.

Most of the counties interviewed said they had bulletproofed their computer systems and voting equipment. Joel Miller, an election official in Linn County, Iowa, said the county has recently put in place two-factor authentication requirements for its email systems. “We all need minimum standards for network security,” he said. “We weren’t up to date until recently.”

The counties with vulnerable email systems ranged in population from Orange County, California, with 3.1 million people to Olmsted County, Minnesota, with 155,000. Orange County elections director Neal Kelley said he’d prefer to have two-factor authentication. It hasn’t been implemented yet, but is “on the short horizon,” he said. There are two toss-up House races in Orange County.

Noah Praetz, the director of elections for Cook County, Illinois, except the city of Chicago, said his office “lacks a little bit of control” when it comes to changing IT systems because the county-run network serves more than 24,000 employees. He said the county government doesn’t require two-factor authentication for employees to log into emails.

One county reported two problems. Fayette County, Kentucky, which includes Lexington, told ProPublica its electronic voting machines don’t produce a separate paper trail for voters to verify their choices. Nor does it use two-factor authentication on its email system. Fayette, one of the state’s largest counties, is home to a chunk of Kentucky’s 6th congressional district, where a once-safe Republican incumbent is facing an unexpectedly competitive challenger.

Don Blevins, the Fayette elections chief, told ProPublica his county is not at risk for an email hack that would affect voting or registration. “I don’t question that two-factor authentication is better,” he said, but added, “Since we don’t use email to conduct voting, nor voter registration, then the level of security is moot.”

Besides Orange, Olmsted, Cook, and Fayette, the counties without two-factor authentication were: Arapaho County, Colorado; Linn County, Hennepin County, and Dakota County, Minnesota; Hamilton County, Ohio; King County, Washington; and Harris County, Texas.

Some counties have secured their emails but had other shortcomings. Shawnee County, Kansas, said it doesn’t yet have countermeasures to stop hackers from bringing down its website by overloading it with malicious traffic. If such a denial-of-service attack takes the site offline, election commissioner Andrew Howell said, officials would instead publish election results on social media.

Five of the 27 counties surveyed did not respond to multiple emails or phone calls from ProPublica: Polk County, Iowa; St. Louis County, Minnesota; Ocean County and Essex County, New Jersey; and Oneida County, New York.

U.S. law enforcement officials and cybersecurity experts have been working with states in the months leading up to the November midterms to improve election security. States are using some of the $380 million in newly earmarked federal funds to test for vulnerabilities and recruit and train IT staff, according to congressional testimony from the National Association of Secretaries of State.

Fixing technical problems isn’t cheap, and county governments have had to make hard choices when prioritizing spending. Tammy Patrick, a former election administrator in Arizona and now a senior adviser at the nonprofit Democracy Fund, said counties may consider it more urgent to replace outdated voting machines than to fix email systems.

That said, even short-lived IT security problems may have a corrosive effect on public trust in the accuracy of ballot results. “The last thing you want to do on Election Day is face problems you could have easily dealt with before then,” Hall, the technologist, said. “Officials will dismissively say, ‘It hasn’t happened to us.’ But with that attitude, you’re building a castle on sand.”

Ally Levine, Lilia Chang and Blake Paterson contributed to this report.

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Study: Most Consumers Fear Companies Will 'Go Too Far' With Artificial Intelligence Technologies

New research has found that consumers are conflicted about artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. A national study of 697 adults during the Spring of 2018 by Elicit Insights found:

"Most consumers are conflicted about AI. They know there are benefits, but recognize the risks, too"

Several specific findings:

  • 73 percent of survey participants (e.g., Strongly Agree, Agree) fear "some companies will go too far with AI"
  • 64 percent agreed (e.g., Strongly Agree, Agree) with the statement: "I'm concerned about how companies will use artificial intelligence and the information they have about me to engage with me"
  • "Six out of 10 Americans agree or strongly agree that AI will never be as good as human interaction. Human interaction remains sacred and there is concern with at least a third of consumers that AI won’t stay focused on mundane tasks and leave the real thinking to humans."

Many of the concerns center around control. As AI applications become smarter and more powerful, they are able to operate independently, without human -- users' -- authorization. When presented with several smart-refrigerator scenarios, the less control users had over purchases the fewer survey participants viewed AI as a benefit:

Smart refrigerator and food purchase scenarios. AI study by Elicit Insights. Click to view larger version

AI technologies can also be used to find and present possible matches for online dating services. Again, survey participants expressed similar control concerns:

Dating service scenarios. AI study by Elicit Insights. Click to view larger version

Download Elicit Insights' complete Artificial Intelligence survey (Adobe PDF). What are your opinions? Do you prefer AI applications that operate independently, or which require your authorization?


Study: Performance Issues Impede IoT Device Trust And Usage Worldwide By Consumers

Dynatrace logo A global survey recently uncovered interesting findings about the usage and satisfaction of Iot (Internet of things) devices by consumers. A survey of consumers in several countries found that 52 percent already use IoT devices, and 64 percent of users have already encountered performance issues with their devices.

Opinium Research logo Dynatrace, a software intelligence company, commissioned Opinium Research to conduct a global survey of 10,002 participants, with 2,000 in the United States, 2,000 in the United Kingdom, and 1,000 respondents each in France, Germany, Australia, Brazil, Singapore, and China. Dynatrace announced several findings, chiefly:

"On average, consumers experience 1.5 digital performance problems every day, and 62% of people fear the number of problems they encounter, and the frequency, will increase due to the rise of IoT."

That seems like plenty of poor performance. Some findings were specific to travel, healthcare, and in-home retail sectors. Regarding travel:

"The digital performance failures consumers are already experiencing with everyday technology is potentially making them wary of other uses of IoT. 85% of respondents said they are concerned that self-driving cars will malfunction... 72% feel it is likely software glitches in self-driving cars will cause serious injuries and fatalities... 84% of consumers said they wouldn’t use self-driving cars due to a fear of software glitches..."

Regarding healthcare:

"... 62% of consumers stated they would not trust IoT devices to administer medication; this sentiment is strongest in the 55+ age range, with 74% expressing distrust. There were also specific concerns about the use of IoT devices to monitor vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure. 85% of consumers expressed concern that performance problems with these types of IoT devices could compromise clinical data..."

Regarding in-home retail devices:

"... 83% of consumers are concerned about losing control of their smart home due to digital performance problems... 73% of consumers fear being locked in or out of the smart home due to bugs in smart home technology... 68% of consumers are worried they won’t be able to control the temperature in the smart home due to malfunctions in smart home technology... 81% of consumers are concerned that technology or software problems with smart meters will lead to them being overcharged for gas, electricity, and water."

The findings are a clear call to IoT makers to improve the performance, security, and reliability of their internet-connected devices. To learn more, download the full Dynatrace report titled, "IoT Consumer Confidence Report: Challenges for Enterprise Cloud Monitoring on the Horizon."


Survey: Complexities And Consumer Fears With Checking Credit Reports For Errors

Many consumers know that they should check their credit reports yearly for errors, but most don't. A recent survey found much complexity and fears surrounding credit reports. WalletHub surveyed 500 adults in the United States during July, and found:

  • 84 percent of survey respondents know that they should check their credit reports at least once each year
  • Only 41 percent of respondents said they check their credit reports
  • 27 percent said they don't have the time to check their credit reports
  • 14 percent said they are afraid to see the contents of their credit reports

WalletHub found that women were twice as likely as men to have the above fear. Millennials were five times as likely than Baby Boomers to have this fear. More findings are listed below.

It is important for consumers to understand the industry. Inaccurate credit report can lower your credit score, the overall number used to indicate your credit worthiness. A low credit score can cost you money: denied credit applications, or approved loans but with higher interest rates. The errors in credit reports can include another person's data co-mingled with yours (obviously, that should never happen), a dead person's data co-mingled with yours, or a credit report that doesn't accurately reflect a loan you truly paid off on time and in full.

A 2013 study by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) found problems with credit reports accuracy. First, 26 percent of participants identified errors in their credit reports. So, one in four consumers were affected. Plus, of the 572 credit reports where errors were identified, 399 reports (70%) were modified by a credit reporting agency, and 211 (36%) resulted in a credit score changed. So, finding and reporting errors is beneficial for consumers. Plus, a report in 2013 by the 60 Minutes television news magazine listed problems with the dispute process: failures by the largest three credit reporting agencies to correct errors reported by consumers on their credit reports.

There are national and regional credit reporting agencies. The three national credit reporting agencies include Experian, Equifax, andTransUnion. Equifax operates a secondary consumer reporting agency focused solely upon the telecommunications industry and broadband internet services.

Credit reporting agencies get their data from a variety of sources including data brokers. So, their business model is based upon data sharing. Just about anyone can set up and operate a credit reporting agency. No special skills nor expertise are required. Credit reporting agencies make money by selling credit reports to lenders. Credit reports often contain errors. For better or worse regarding security, credit reporting agencies historically have outsourced work, sometimes internationally.

The industry and executives have arguably lackadaisical data security approaches. A massive data breach at Equifax affected about 143 million persons in 2017. An independent investigation of that breach found a length list of data security flaws and failures at Equifax. To compound matters, the Internal Revenue Service gave Equifax a no-bid contract in 2017.

The industry has a spotty history. In 2007, Equifax paid a $2.7 million fine for violating federal credit laws. In 2009, it paid a $65,000 fine to the state of Indiana for violating the state's security freeze law. In 2012, Equifax and some of its customers paid $1.6 million to settle allegations of improper list sales. A data breach at Experian in 2015 affected 15 million wireless carrier customers. In 2017, Equifax and TransUnion paid $23.1 million to settle allegations of deceptive advertising about credit scores.

See the graphic below for more findings from the WalletHub survey.

2018 Credit Report Complexity Survey by WalletHub. Click to view larger version


How Well Do Americans Distinguish Facts From Opinions? People With These 3 Skills Do The Best

The current fast-paced news environment, multitude of online sources, and the rise of "fake news" all place a premium upon being able to distinguish facts from opinions. And some opinions are also rumors or lies. Nobody wants to be duped as this shooter was in the Washington pizzeria attack in 2016. Nobody wants to waste their votes based upon misinformation.

How well do people in the United States distinguish facts from opinions? Earlier this year, the Pew Research Center conducted a survey to determine:

"... whether member of the public can recognize news as factual – something that’s capable of being proved or disproved by objective evidence – or as an opinion that reflects the beliefs and values of whoever expressed it."

Overall findings were not encouraging:

"The main portion of the study, which measured the public’s ability to distinguish between five factual statements and five opinion statements, found that a majority of Americans correctly identified at least three of the five statements in each set. But this result is only a little better than random guesses. Far fewer Americans got all five correct, and roughly a quarter got most or all wrong."

The survey of 5,035 U.S. adults was conducted between February 22 and March 8, 2018. Another key finding: people with certain skills outperformed others who lacked those skills:

"Those with high political awareness, those who are very digitally savvy and those who place high levels of trust in the news media are better able than others to accurately identify news-related statements as factual or opinion... 36% of Americans with high levels of political awareness (those who are knowledgeable about politics and regularly get political news) correctly identified all five factual news statements, compared with about half as many (17%) of those with low political awareness. Similarly, 44% of the very digitally savvy (those who are highly confident in using digital devices and regularly use the internet) identified all five opinion statements correctly versus 21% of those who are not as technologically savvy... Trust in those who do the reporting also matters in how that statement is interpreted. Almost four-in-ten Americans who have a lot of trust in the information from national news organizations (39%) correctly identified all five factual statements, compared with 18% of those who have not much or no trust. "

Pew Research. Survey findings. The politically aware, digitally savvy, and those more trusting of the news media fare better at distinguishing facts from opinions. Click to view larger version See the table on the right for details about the findings, which also apply across political parties:

"Both Republicans and Democrats show a propensity to be influenced by which side of the aisle a statement appeals to most. For example, members of each political party were more likely to label both factual and opinion statements as factual when they appealed more to their political side."

The study also investigated whether the news source brand affected person's abilities to distinguish facts from opinions:

"Overall, attributing the statements to news outlets had a limited impact on statement classification... Members of the two parties were as likely as each other to correctly classify the factual statements when no source was attributed or when USA Today or The New York Times was attributed. Labeling statements with a news outlet had no impact on how Republicans or Democrats classified the opinion statements."

When the source was attributed to Fox News, "Republicans were modestly more likely than Democrats to accurately classify the three factual statements... correspondingly, Democrats were modestly less likely than Republicans to do so.

Another finding:

"When Americans see a news statement as factual, they overwhelmingly also believe it to be accurate. This is true for both statements they correctly and incorrectly identified as factual, though small portions of the public did call statements both factual and inaccurate."

Many people I know strongly believe that persons in the other political party are misinformed and/or misled by their reliance upon opinions, rumors, and inaccurate information; while persons in their political party are uniquely informed without reliance upon opinions, rumors, and inaccurate information. We now know that belief isn't accurate.


Report: Social Media Use in 2018

There has been plenty of controversy recently surrounding social media: job advertisements which exclude older workers, concerns that social media threaten democracies, transparency concerns about political advertisements, censorship applied inconsistently, politicians blocking constituents, promises to do better by Facebook, and more. Given these issues, it's reasonable to ask: who uses social media? Which sites? Has this changed over time? Would any users stop using social media?

The Pew Research Center recently released its latest report, "Social Media Use in 2018." Key findings:

"Facebook remains the primary platform for most Americans. Roughly two-thirds of U.S. adults (68%) now report that they are Facebook users, and roughly three-quarters of those users access Facebook on a daily basis. With the exception of those 65 and older, a majority of Americans across a wide range of demographic groups now use Facebook... The video-sharing site YouTube – which contains many social elements, even if it is not a traditional social media platform – is now used by nearly three-quarters of U.S. adults and 94% of 18- to 24-year-olds... Some 78% of 18- to 24-year-olds use Snapchat, and a sizeable majority of these users (71%) visit the platform multiple times per day. Similarly, 71% of Americans in this age group now use Instagram and close to half (45%) are Twitter users... Pinterest remains substantially more popular with women (41% of whom say they use the site) than with men (16%). LinkedIn remains especially popular among college graduates and those in high-income households. Some 50% of Americans with a college degree use LinkedIn, compared with just 9% of those with a high school diploma or less. The messaging service WhatsApp is popular in Latin America, and this popularity also extends to Latinos in the United States – 49% of Hispanics report that they are WhatsApp users, compared with 14% of whites and 21% of blacks."

The report was based on telephone interviews of 2,002 adults (18 years of age or older) living in the United States. The interviews were conducted during Jan. 3 - 10, 2018, and included 500 respondents via landline telephones, and 1,502 respondents via mobile phones. The survey was conducted by interviewers under the direction of Abt Associates.

A couple charts highlight the key findings:

Pew Research Center. Social Media use in 2018. Site use by age groups. Click to view larger version

Pew Research Center. Social Media Use in 2018. Reciprocity usage. Click to view larger version

Pew Research also found:

"... the share of social media users who say these platforms would be hard to give up has increased by 12 percentage points compared with a survey conducted in early 2014. But by the same token, a majority of users (59%) say it would not be hard to stop using these sites, including 29% who say it would not be hard at all to give up social media."

View more information and details in the full report at the Pew Research Center site.


Survey: United States Citizens Don't Know Their Basic Constitutional Rights

The Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) announced the results of its latest annual Constitution Day Civics Survey -- how well United States citizens know their Constitutional rights. The latest survey was conducted August 9 to 13 and included 1,013 adults. Main findings:

"1. More than half of Americans (53 percent) incorrectly think it is accurate to say that immigrants who are here illegally do not have any rights under the U.S. Constitution;

2. More than a third of those surveyed (37 percent) can’t name any of the rights guaranteed under the First Amendment; and

3. Only a quarter of Americans (26 percent) can name all three branches of government."

About the rights of undocumented immigrants, the incorrect belief is held by more conservatives (67 percent) compared to moderates (48 percent) and liberals (46 percent). The APPC explained:

"In fact, immigrants who are in the United States illegally share some constitutional protections with U.S. citizens. More than a century ago, in Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886), a case involving a Chinese immigrant, the Supreme Court ruled that non-citizens were entitled to due process rights under the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause. Other cases have expanded upon those rights..."

A tiny bit of good news in the survey results:

"Most respondents, though not all, know that under the Constitution, U.S. citizens who are atheists or Muslim have the same rights as all other citizens. Seventy-nine percent of respondents know it is accurate to say that U.S. citizens who are atheists have the same rights as other citizens, and 76 percent know it is accurate to say that citizens who are Muslim have the same rights as other citizens."

About how well (or not) citizens' know their rights under the First Amendment (bold emphasis added):

"Nearly half of those surveyed (48 percent) say that freedom of speech is a right guaranteed by the First Amendment. But, unprompted, 37 percent could not name any First Amendment rights. And far fewer people could name the other First Amendment rights: 15 percent of respondents say freedom of religion; 14 percent say freedom of the press; 10 percent say the right of assembly; and only 3 percent say the right to petition the government... Contrary to the First Amendment, 39 percent of Americans support allowing Congress to stop the news media from reporting on any issue of national security without government approval. That was essentially unchanged from last year..."

So, many Americans fail to understand the law of the land -- the U.S. Constitution -- and some naively (or stupidly) support actions to restrict their rights.

Are things getting better or worse? In a 2011 survey by the APPC, barely half of United States citizens (51 percent) knew that a two-thirds majority vote by Congress is needed to overturn a presidential veto. In a 2015 survey by the APPC, about one in ten Americans (12 percent) said that the Bill of Rights guarantees pet ownership. It doesn't. A quick comparison across the years:

Survey Result (% of People) 2011 2015 2017
Correctly named all 3 branches of government 38 31 26
Unable to name 1 branch of government 33 32 33

Kathleen Hall Jamieson, director of the Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) of the University of Pennsylvania said:

"Protecting the rights guaranteed by the Constitution presupposes that we know what they are. The fact that many don’t is worrisome... These results emphasize the need for high-quality civics education in the schools and for press reporting that underscores the existence of constitutional protections."

I agree. These results are embarrassing, too. What do you think?


Survey: 90 Percent Of Consumers Want Smart Devices With Security Built In

A recent survey of consumers in six countries found that 90 percent believe it is important for smart devices to have security built into the products. Also, 78 percent said they are aware that any smart device connected to their home WiFi network is vulnerable to attacks by hackers wanting to steal personal data stored on the device.

Security importance by country. Irdeto Global Consumer IoT Security Survey. Select to view larger version The Irdeto Global Consumer IoT Security Survey, conducted online from June 22, 2017 to July 10, 2017 by YouGov Plc for Irdeto, included 7,882 adults (aged 18 or older) in six countries: Brazil, China, Germany, India, United Kingdom, and United States. Irdeto provides security solutions to protect platforms and applications for media, entertainment, automotive and Internet-of-things (IoT) connected industries.

Additional key findings:

"... 72% of millennials (ages 18-24 years) indicated that they are aware that any smart device connected to the Wi-Fi in their home has the potential to be targeted by a hacker, compared to 82% of consumers 55+. This indicates that older generations may be more savvy about IoT security or more cautious... More than half of consumers around the globe (56%) think that it is the responsibility of both the end-user and the manufacturer of the product to prevent hacking of smart devices. Alternatively, only 15% of consumers globally think they are responsible, while 20% feel the manufacturer of the device is responsible for cybersecurity. In China, more consumers than any other country surveyed (31%) stated that it is the responsibility of manufacturers. Brazilians led all countries surveyed (23%) in the belief that it is the responsibility of the end-user to prevent hacking of connected devices... Germans expressed the least concern with nearly half (42%) stating that they are not concerned about smart devices being hacked. On the opposite end of the spectrum, Brazilian smart device owners expressed the most concern with 88% of those surveyed saying they were concerned...

And, smart device usage varies by country:

"Regarding the number of smart devices consumers own, 89% of those surveyed have at least one connected device in their home. In addition, 81% of consumers across the globe admitted to having more than one connected device in the home. India led all countries with a staggering 97% of consumers stating that they have at least one smart device in the home, compared to only 80% of US consumers..."

Read the announcement by Irdeto. View the full infographic.

Device security responsibility. Irdeto Global Consumer IoT Security Survey. Select to view larger version


Survey: Online Harassment In 2017

What is online life like for many United States residents? A recent survey by the Pew Research Center provides a good view. 41 percent of adults surveyed have personally experienced online harassment. Even more, 66 percent, witnessed online harassment directed at others.

Types of behaviors. Online Harassment 2017 survey. Pew Research. Click to view larger version The types of online harassment behaviors vary from the less severe (e.g., offensive name calling, efforts to embarrass someone) to the more severe (e.g., physical threats, harassment over a sustained period, sexual harassment, stalking.) 18 percent of survey participants -- nearly one out of every fiver persons -- reported that they had experienced severe behaviors.

Americans reported that social networking sites are the most common locations for online harassment experiences. Of the 41 percent of survey participants who personally experienced online harassment, most of those (82 percent) cited a single site and 58 percent cited "social media."

The reasons vary. 14 percent of survey respondents reported they had been harassed online specifically because of their politics; 9 percent reported that they were targeted due to their physical appearance; e percent said they were targeted due to their race or ethnicity; and 8 percent said they were targeted due to their gender. 5 percent said they were targeted due their religion, and 3 percent said they were targeted due to their sexual orientation.

Some groups experience online harassment more than others. Pew found that younger adults, under age 30, are more likely to experience severe forms of online harassment. Similarly, younger adults are also more likely to witness online harassment targeting others. Pew also found:

"... one-in-four blacks say they have been targeted with harassment online because of their race or ethnicity, as have one-in-ten Hispanics. The share among whites is lower (3%). Similarly, women are about twice as likely as men to say they have been targeted as a result of their gender (11% vs. 5%). Men, however, are around twice as likely as women to say they have experienced harassment online as a result of their political views (19% vs. 10%). Similar shares of Democrats and Republicans say they have been harassed online..."

The impacts upon victims vary, too:

"... ranging from mental or emotional stress to reputational damage or even fear for one’s personal safety. At the same time, harassment does not have to be experienced directly to leave an impact. Around one-quarter of Americans (27%) say they have decided not to post something online after witnessing the harassment of others, while more than one-in-ten (13%) say they have stopped using an online service after witnessing other users engage in harassing behaviors..."

Different attitudes by gender. Online Harassment 2017 survey. Pew Research. Click to view larger version And, attitudes vary by gender. See the table on the right. More women than men consider online harassment a "major problem," and men prioritize free speech over online safety while women prioritize safety first. And, 83 percent of young women (e.g., ages 18 - 29) viewed online harassment as a major problem. Perhaps most importantly, persons who have "faced severe forms of online harassment differ in experiences, reactions, and attitudes."

Pew Research also found that persons who experience severe forms of online harassment, "are more likely to be targeted for personal characteristics and to face offline consequences." So, what happens online doesn't necessarily stay online.

The perpetrators vary, too. Of the 41 percent of survey participants who personally experienced online harassment, 34 percent said the perpetrator was a stranger, and 31 percent said they didn't know the perpetrator's real identity. Also, 26 percent said the perpetrator was an acquaintance, followed by friend (18 percent), family member, (11 percent), former romantic partner (7 percent), and coworker (5 percent).

Pew Research found that the number of Americans who experienced online harassment has increased slightly from 35 percent during a 2014 survey. Pew Research Center surveyed 4,248 U.S. adults during January 9 - 23, 2017. 

Next Steps
62 percent of survey participants view online harassment as a major problem. 5 percent do not consider it a problem at all. People who have experienced severe forms of online harassment said that they have already taken action. Those actions include a mix: a) set up or adjust privacy settings for their profiles in online services, b) reported offensive content to the online service, c) responded directly to the harasser, d) offered support to others targeted, e) changed information in their online profiles, and f) stopped using specific online services.

Views vary about which entities bear responsibility for solutions. 79 percent of survey respondents said that online services have a duty to intervene when harassment occurs on their service. 35 percent believe that better policies and tools from online services are the best way to address online harassment.

Meanwhile, 60 said that bystanders who witness online harassment "should play a major role in addressing this issue," and 15 percent view peer pressure as an effective solution. 49 said law enforcement should play a major role in addressing online harassment, while 31 said stronger laws are needed. Perhaps most troubling:

"... a sizable proportion of Americans (43%) say that law enforcement currently does not take online harassment incidents seriously enough."

Among persons who have experienced severe forms of online harassment, 55 percent said that law enforcement does not take the incidents seriously enough. Compare that statistic with this: nearly three-quarters (73 percent) of young men (ages 18 - 29) feel that offensive online content is taken too seriously.

And Americans are highly divided about how to balance safety concerns versus free:

"When asked how they would prioritize these competing interests, 45% of Americans say it is more important to let people speak their minds freely online; a slightly larger share (53%) feels that it is more important for people to feel welcome and safe online.

Americans are also relatively divided on just how seriously offensive content online should be treated. Some 43% of Americans say that offensive speech online is too often excused as not being a big deal, but a larger share (56%) feel that many people take offensive content online too seriously."

With such divergent views, one wonders if the problem of online harassment can be easily solved. What are your opinions about online harassment?


Poll Finds Republicans Rollback of Broadband Privacy Very Unpopular

A recent poll found that the Republican rollback of broadband privacy rules is very unpopular. Very unpopular. The poll included 1,000 Americans, and the results cut across age, gender, and political affiliations. Despite this, President Trump signed the privacy-rollback legislation on April 3. Since then, many consumers have sought online tools to protect their privacy.

Vox reported the survey results:

Image of Yougov poll results about Republican rollback of broadband privacy. Click to view larger version

Late last week, several Republicans in the House of Representatives sent a letter (Adobe PDF) to Ajit Pai, the Chairman of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), urging the FCC to regulate broadband service providers. The letter read, in part:

"We write to ensure that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) stands ready to protect consumer privacy... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has long been the standard bearer for striking the right balance of consumer protection with a pro-innovative construct that encourages consumer choice, opportunities, and new jobs... An FCC approach that mirrors the FTC will continue to protect consumers in this tumultuous time... Until such time as the FCC rectifies the Title II reclassification that inappropriately removed ISPs from the FTC's jurisdiction, we urge the FCC to hold Internet service providers (ISPs) to their privacy promises..."

The letter was signed by Greg Walden (Chairman, Committee on Energy & Commerce), Marsha Blackburn (Chairman, Subcommittee on Communications & Technology), and 48 other representatives.

Tumultuous times? The tumult was created by the rollback of privacy rules -- a situation created by Republicans. All would have been fine if they'd left the FCC's broadband privacy rules in place; rules consumers clear want -- rules that keep users in control of their online privacy.

Representative Blackburn and her fellow Republicans either doesn't know history or have chosen to ignore it. Several problems have plagued the industry: a lack of ISP competition in key markets, consumers in the United States pay more for broadband and get slower speeds compared to other countries, and numerous privacy violations and lawsuits:

Clearly, the FCC had to act, it did, it held hearings, and then finalized improved broadband privacy rules to help consumers. Now, the Congress and President undid all of that creating the tumult they now claim to want to solve.

Clearly, Representative Blackburn and others are happy to comply with the wishes of their corporate donors -- who don't want broadband classified as a utility. Internet access is a basic consumer need for work, entertainment, and school -- just like water, electricity, and natural gas (for cooking). Internet access is a utility, like it or not. The FCC under Chairman Wheeler had the right consumer-friendly approach, despite the spin by Blackburn and others.

What are your opinions?


Study: Many Consumers Don't Secure Their Mobile Devices

Many consumers in the United States don't take the steps experts recommend to secure their mobile devices. Pew Research reported the findings of a recent survey:

"More than a quarter (28%) of smartphone owners say they do not use a screen lock or other security features to access their phone. And while a majority of smartphone users say they have updated their phone’s apps or operating system, about 40% say they only update when it’s convenient for them. Meanwhile, some users forgo updating their phones altogether: Around one-in-ten  smartphone owners report they never update their phone’s operating system (14%) or update the apps on their phone (10%)."

And, there are differences by the age of phone owners:

"owners ages 65 and older are much less likely than adults younger than 65 to use a screen lock and regularly update their phone’s apps and operating system (13% vs. 23%). Smartphone users 65 and older are also more than twice as likely as younger users to report that they do not take any of these actions to secure their phones (8% vs. 3%)..."

Other risky behaviors consumers perform:

"... 54% of internet users use public Wi-Fi networks, and many of these users are performing sensitive activities such online shopping (21%) or online banking (20%)."


Survey: Internet of Evil Things Report

Pwnie 2017 Internet of Evil Things report A recent survey of information technology (IT) professionals by Pwnie Express, an information security vendor, found that connected devices bring risks into corporate networks and IT professionals are not keeping up. 90 percent of IT professionals surveyed view connected devices as a security threat to their corporate systems and networks. 66 percent aren't sure how many connected devices are in their organizations.

These findings have huge implications as the installed base of connected devices (a/k/a the "Internet of things" or ioT) takes off. Experts forecast 8.4 billion connected devices in use worldwide in 2017, up 31 percent from 2016. Total spending for those devices will reach almost $2 trillion in 2017, and $20.4 billion by 2020. The regions that will drive this growth include North America, Western Europe, and China; which already comprise 67 percent of the installed base.

Key results from the latest survey by Pwnie Express:

"One in five of the survey respondents (20%) said their IoT devices were hit with ransomware attacks last year. 16 percent of respondents say they experienced Man-in-the-middle attacks through IoT devices. Devices continue to lend themselves to problematic configurations. The default network from common routers “linksys” and “Netgear” were two of the top 10 most common “open default” wireless SSID’s (named networks), and the hotspot network built-in for the configuration and setup of HP printers - “hpsetup”- is #2."

An SSID, or Service Set Identifier, is the name a wireless network broadcasts. Manufacturers ship them with default names, which the bad guys often look for to find open, unprotected networks. While businesses purchase and deploy a variety of connected devices (e.g., smart meters, manufacturing field devices, process sensors for electrical generating plants, real-time location devices for healthcare) and some for "smart buildings" (e.g., LED lighting, HVAC sensors, security systems), other devices are brought into the workplace by workers.

Most companies have Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policies allowing employees to bring and use in the workplace personal devices (e.g., phones, tablets, smart watches, fitness bands). The risk for corporate IT professionals is that when employees, contractors, and consultants bring their personal devices into the workplace, and connect to corporate networks. A mobile device infected with malware from a wireless home network, or from a public hot-spot (e.g., airport, restaurant) can easily introduce that malware into office networks.

Consumers connect a wide variety of items to their wireless home networks: laptops, tablets, smartphones, printers, lighting and temperature controls, televisions, home security systems, fitness bands, smart watches, toys, smart wine bottles, and home appliances (e.g., refrigerators, hot water heaters, coffee makers, crock pots, etc.). Devices with poor security features don't allow operating system and security software updates, don't encrypt key information such as PIN numbers and passwords, and build the software into the firmware where it cannot be upgraded. Last month, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed a lawsuit against a modem/router maker alleging poor security in its products.

Security experts advise consumers to perform several steps to protect their wireless home networks: change the SSID name, change all default passwords, enable encryption (e.g., WEP, WPA, WPA2, etc.), create a special password for guests, and enable a firewall. While security experts have warned consumers for years, too many still don't heed the advice.

The survey respondents identified the top connected device threats:

"1. Misconfigured healthcare, security, and IoT devices will provide another route for ransomware and malware to cause harm and affect organizations.

2. Unresolved vulnerabilities or the misconfiguration of popular connected devices, spurred by the vulnerabilities being publicized by botnets, including Mirai and newer, “improved” versions, in the hands of rogue actors will compromise the security of organizations purchasing these devices.

3. Mobile phones will be the attack vector of the future, becoming an extra attack surface and another mode of rogue access points taking advantage of unencrypted Netgear, AT&T, and hpsetup wireless networks to set up man-in-the-middle attacks."

The survey included more than 800 IT security professionals in several industries: financial services, hospitality, retail, manufacturing, professional services, technology, healthcare, energy and more. Download the "2017 Internet of Evil Things Report" by Pwnie.


74 Percent of US Broadband Households Have Internet-Connected Televisions

According to new research from The Diffusion Group (TDG), 74 percent of US households had Internet-connected televisions at year-end 2016. In 2013, 50 percent of households had Internet-connected televisions. Michael Greeson, TDG President and Director of Research, said:

"At 74% penetration, connected TV use is squarely in the Late Mainstream phase of its trajectory. Barring any major disruption in TV technology or market conditions, growth will slow each year as the solution reaches saturation... Broadband pay-TV services are particularly well positioned to leverage this utility, which permits scale at much lower costs."

TDG first noted in 2004 that the penetration of connected televisions would closely follow broadband (a/k/a high-speed Internet) services.

Chart by TDG of Internet-connected televisions in the United States. Click to view larger version


Federal Reserve Survey of Experiences of Younger Workers

The Federal Reserve Board (FRB) recently released the results of its survey of younger workers ages 18 to 30 with data through 2015. The survey found that younger workers overall:

"... experienced higher rates of unemployment and lower rates of labor force participation than the general population for at least two decades, and the Great Recession exacerbated this phenomenon. Despite a substantial labor market recovery from 2009 through 2014, vulnerable populations—including the nation’s young adults—continue to experience higher rates of unemployment. Changes in labor market conditions, including globalization and automation, have reduced the availability of well-paid, secure jobs for less-educated persons, particularly those jobs that provide opportunity for advancement. Furthermore, data suggest that young workers entering the labor market are affected by a long-running increase in the use of “contingent” or “alternative” work arrangements, characterized by contracted, part-time, temporary, and seasonal work."

Specific findings about younger workers' attitudes:

"In 2015, the majority of young adults (61 percent) are optimistic about their future job opportunities, showing an increase in optimism from 2013 (45 percent)... the likelihood that a young adult is optimistic about future job opportunities increases with higher levels of education... young adults continue to have a strong preference for steady employment (62 percent) over higher pay (36 percent)... Among respondents who prefer steady employment, 80 percent would rather have one steady job than a stream of steady jobs for the next five years...

Most young adults are not sure how their standard of living will compare with their parents’ standard of living. Young adults with at least one parent with a bachelor’s degree (or higher) are more likely to believe their standard of living will be lower than their parents (4 percent) when compared with young adults whose parents have a high school education or less (1 percent)...

Specific findings about younger workers' experiences:

"28 percent of respondents are currently enrolled as students in a certificate or degree program. Most students are enrolled in degree programs... most undergraduate students are identified “nontraditional” because they are over age 23, enrolled in school part time, working full time, and/or financially independent. 10 percent of respondents are “non-completers,” meaning they are not currently enrolled in a certificate or degree program they started... 62 percent of respondents with post-secondary education worked while in school to finance all or part of their most recent education. 52 percent of respondents with post-secondary educational experience have parents that contributed financially to their education. 46 percent of respondents incurred debt to pay for some portion of their education or training...

41 percent of respondents believe they have the level of education and training needed for the type of job that they would like to hold in the next five years... 66 percent of young adults received information about jobs and careers during high school. And, 69 percent of young adults received such information in college...

Less than half (45 percent) of employees work in a career field that is closely related to their educational and training background... Many young adults gained early work experience during high school, college, or both. 53 percent of young adults had a paid job during high school, and 77 percent of young adults had a paid job during college..."

A key takeaway: about 30 percent of young adults did not receive information about jobs and careers in high school nor college. That seems to be an area the educational sector must improve upon.

4,135 potential respondents were contacted for the 2015 survey, and 2,035 completed surveys (49 percent response rate). FRB staff designed the survey, which was administered by GfK, an online consumer research company.

More notable statistics from the survey: about 69 percent of survey respondents have some form of paid employment, up from 60 percent in 2013. 63 percent of employees held a single full-time job during the past year, and 18 percent of employees held multiple full-time jobs during the past year. Profile information about employed younger workers:

"78 percent of employees have a permanent/long-term job... 75 percent of employees in the survey have a full-time job... Among part-time employees surveyed, 49 percent were identified as underemployed, as they are working part time because of economic conditions. Meanwhile, 42 percent of part-time employees prefer part-time work... The percent of young workers who have health insurance increased from 2013 (70 percent) to 2015 (82 percent). Likewise, the percent of young workers who received paid time off for sick leave, holidays, or both from any of their paid jobs increased from 2013 (59 percent) to 2015 (62 percent)...

As adults, 43 percent of employees have formed a new household with their immediate family (i.e., spouse/partner), and 20 percent have formed a new household alone or with a roommate..."

Self-sufficiency is important. The report found:

"... 73 percent of employees are able to cover their monthly household expenses with their household income. Meanwhile, 22 percent of employees report that they are sometimes able to cover their monthly household expenses, and 4 percent are not able to cover their monthly household expenses at all... Among employees who are not able to cover their household expenses some or all of the time, 64 percent reduce their monthly expenses to meet the challenge, 56 percent do not pay some bills, 54 percent borrow money from family, 46 percent use their credit cards, 41 percent use savings, and 16 percent borrow from friends.

A key consideration regarding self-sufficiency is the ability of a household to withstand financial disruptions. Among young workers, the ability to go without a paycheck temporarily improved between 2013 and 2015. The percent of young workers who can pay their living expenses if out of work for four weeks improved from 38 percent in 2013 to 45 percent in 2015..."

The report cited 4 policy implications to address the findings:

  1. Improve Alignment between Education and the Labor Market
  2. Increase Opportunities for Non-degree Education
  3. Provide Assistance and Protections for Workers with Alternative Work Arrangements
  4. Seek Opportunities to Improve Job Growth

There is plenty of information in the 120-page report, which is available at the FRB site and here (Adobe PDF; 1,190.2K bytes).


How To Spot Fake News And Not Get Duped

You may have heard about the "pizzagate" conspiracy -- fake news about a supposed child-sex ring operating from a pizzeria in Washington, DC. A heavily armed citizen drove from North Carolina to the pizzeria to investigate to investigate the bogus child-sex ring supposedly run by Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. The reality: no sex ring. That citizen had been duped by fake news. Shots were fired, and thankfully nobody was hurt.

CBS News reported that the pizzagate conspiracy had been promoted by Michael G. Flynn, son of retired General Michael T. Flynn, Donald Trump's pick for national security adviser. As a result, the younger Flynn resigned Tuesday from President-Elect Trump's transition team.

I use the phrase "fake news" for several types of misleading content: propaganda, unproven or fact-free conspiracy theories, disinformation, and clickbait. The pizzagate incident highlighted two issues: a) fake news has consequences, and b) many people don't know how to distinguish real news from fake news. So, while political operatives reportedly have used a combination of fake news, ads, and social media to both encourage supporters to vote and discourage opponents from voting, there clearly are other real-life consequences.

To help people spot fake news, NPR reported:

"Stopping the proliferation of fake news isn't just the responsibility of the platforms used to spread it. Those who consume news also need to find ways of determining if what they're reading is true. We offer several tips below. The idea is that people should have a fundamental sense of media literacy. And based on a study recently released by Stanford University researchers, many people don't."

The report is enlightening. In the "Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning" report, researchers at Stanford University tested about 7,804 students in 12 states between January 2015 and June 2016. They found:

"... at each level—middle school, high school, and college—these variations paled in comparison to a stunning and dismaying consistency. Overall, young people’s ability to reason about the information on the Internet can be summed up in one word: bleak. Our “digital natives” may be able to flit between Facebook and Twitter while simultaneously uploading a selfie to Instagram and texting a friend. But when it comes to evaluating information that flows through social media channels, they are easily duped... We would hope that middle school students could distinguish an ad from a news story. By high school, we would hope that students reading about gun laws would notice that a chart came from a gun owners’ political action committee. And, in 2016, we would hope college students, who spend hours each day online, would look beyond a .org URL and ask who’s behind a site that presents only one side of a contentious issue. But in every case and at every level, we were taken aback by students’ lack of preparation... Many [people] assume that because young people are fluent in social media they are equally savvy about what they find there. Our work shows the opposite."

This is important for both individuals and the future of the nation because:

"For every challenge facing this nation, there are scores of websites pretending to be something they are not. Ordinary people once relied on publishers, editors, and subject matter experts to vet the information they consumed. But on the unregulated Internet, all bets are off... Never have we had so much information at our fingertips. Whether this bounty will make us smarter and better informed or more ignorant and narrow-minded will depend on our awareness of this problem and our educational response to it. At present, we worry that democracy is threatened by the ease at which disinformation about civic issues is allowed to spread and flourish."

While the study focused upon students, but older persons have been duped, too. The suspect in the pizzeria incident was 28 years old. The Stanford report focused upon what teachers and educators can do to better prepare students. According to the researchers, additional solutions are forthcoming.

What can you do to spot fake news? Don't wait for sites and/or social media to do it for you. Become a smarter consumer. The NPR report suggested:

  1. Pay attention to the domain and URL
  2. Read the "About Us" section of the site
  3. Look at the quotes in a story
  4. Look at who said the quotes

All of the suggestions require readers to take the time to understand the website, publication, and/or publisher. A little skepticism is healthy. Also verify the persons quoted and whether the persons quoted are who the article claims. And, verify that any images used actually relate to the event.

We all have to be smarter consumers of news in order to stay informed and meet our civic duties, which includes voting. Nobody wants to vote for politicians that don't represent their interests because they've been duped. To the above list, I would add:

  • Read news wires. These sites include the raw, unfiltered news about who, when, where, and what happened. Some suggested sources: : Associated Press (AP), Reuters, and United Press International (UPI)
  • Learn to recognize advertisements
  • Learn the differences between different types of content: news, opinion, analysis, satire/humor, and entertainment. Reputable sites will label them to help readers.

If you don't know the differences and can't spot each type, then you are likely to get duped.


Study: Almost 40 Percent of U.S. Smartphone Owners Use Voice Recognition

According to a recent study by Parks Associations, a market research and consulting company, 39 percent of smartphone owners in the United States use some form of voice recognition (e.g., Siri, Google Now). The usage is higher (more than 50 percent) for iPhone owners compared to Android owners (less than 33 percent). Harry Wang, Director of Health & Mobile Product Research at Parks Associations said:

“Smartphone penetration has reached 86% of U.S. broadband households, so it is a mature market, with users, particularly younger consumers and iOS users, exploring more intelligent features and interfaces, including voice control... The growing consumer interest in voice control features is driving this technology into new IoT areas... Following Apple’s lead with Siri, other brands have created ‘personalities’ for their voice-control solutions, like Alexa for Amazon Echo and Cortana for Windows Phones."

Usage is higher among younger persons. 48 percent of smartphone users ages 18-24, use voice recognition software, usage of the “Siri” voice recognition software increased from 40 to 52 percent between 2013 and 2015. In total, about 15 percent of all U.S. broadband households use Siri.

About 70 percent of smartphone owners who use voice recognition are satisfied. 38 percent said they are very satisfied, and 9 percent said they are not satisfied.

Additional findings about U.S. smartphone users:

  • More than 70 percent watch short streaming video clips, and more than 40 percent watch long streaming videos.
  • 36 percent use WiFi calling.
  • 26 percent use a payment app for purchases at retail stores, and
  • 24 percent stream video from their phones to a second screen (e.g., TV, PC).

Learn more in the "360 View: Mobility and the App Economy" report, or the press release, by Parks Associates.


Report: Consumer Usage of Video Streaming Services in The US

New research revealed that 16% of the "viewing population" have multiple subscription video-on-demand (SVOD) services in their homes. That's up from 10% three years ago. Consumer market research firm Gfk studied consumers in the United States, and also found that almost half (49%) of the "viewing population" subscribes to at least one SVOD service, 17% have both Netflix and Amazon Prime, 9% have Netflix and Hulu Plus, and 5% have all three of the major services.

The “viewing population” includes consumers who watch video at least once per week via any format: regular TV, streaming, or otherwise. According to Gfk, this is 95 percent of the total number of people 13 to 64 US years of age. Gfk also found that consumers:

"... who pay for combinations of Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hulu, and other subscription streaming services – are more likely to have kids under 18 in their homes (50%, versus an average of 41% among all weekly viewers of any type). “Self-bundlers” also have higher mean incomes than average weekly viewers – at $90,000 per year versus $76,000 – but are less likely to subscribe to traditional pay TV services.."

GfK interviewed 1,054 consumers in the United States for its “Over-the-Top TV 2016: A Complete Video Landscape” report. In related studies during the past year, Gfk found:

Below is an infographic from Gfk's "Over the Top TV 2016" report with additional information:

Infographic from Gfk Over the Top TV 2016 report. Click to view larger version