105 posts categorized "Teens/Youth" Feed

Google And YouTube To Pay $170 Million In Proposed Settlement To Resolve Charges Of Children's Privacy Violations

Google logo Today's blog post contains information all current and future parents should know. On Tuesday, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced a proposed settlement agreement where YouTube LLC, and its parent company, Google LLC, will pay a monetary fine of $170 million to resolve charges that the video-sharing service illegally collected the personal information of children without their parents' consent.

YouTube logo The proposed settlement agreement requires YouTube and Google to pay $136 million to the FTC and $34 million to New York State to resolve charges that the video sharing service violated the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) Rule. The announcement explained the allegations:

"... that YouTube violated the COPPA Rule by collecting personal information—in the form of persistent identifiers that are used to track users across the Internet—from viewers of child-directed channels, without first notifying parents and getting their consent. YouTube earned millions of dollars by using the identifiers, commonly known as cookies, to deliver targeted ads to viewers of these channels, according to the complaint."

"The COPPA Rule requires that child-directed websites and online services provide notice of their information practices and obtain parental consent prior to collecting personal information from children under 13, including the use of persistent identifiers to track a user’s Internet browsing habits for targeted advertising. In addition, third parties, such as advertising networks, are also subject to COPPA where they have actual knowledge they are collecting personal information directly from users of child-directed websites and online services... the FTC and New York Attorney General allege that while YouTube claimed to be a general-audience site, some of YouTube’s individual channels—such as those operated by toy companies—are child-directed and therefore must comply with COPPA."

While $170 million is a lot of money, it is tiny compared to the $5 billion fine by the FTC assessed against Facebook. The fine is also tiny compared to Google's earnings. Alphabet Inc., the holding company which owns Google, generated pretax net income of $34.91 billion during 2018 on revenues of $136.96 billion.

In February, the FTC concluded a settlement with Musical.ly, a video social networking app now operating as TikTok, where Musical.ly paid $5.7 million to resolve allegations of COPPA violations. Regarding the proposed settlement with YouTube, Education Week reported:

"YouTube has said its service is intended for ages 13 and older, although younger kids commonly watch videos on the site and many popular YouTube channels feature cartoons or sing-a-longs made for children. YouTube has its own app for children, called YouTube Kids; the company also launched a website version of the service in August. The site says it requires parental consent and uses simple math problems to ensure that kids aren't signing in on their own. YouTube Kids does not target ads based on viewer interests the way YouTube proper does. The children's version does track information about what kids are watching in order to recommend videos. It also collects personally identifying device information."

The proposed settlement also requires YouTube and Google:

"... to develop, implement, and maintain a system that permits channel owners to identify their child-directed content on the YouTube platform so that YouTube can ensure it is complying with COPPA. In addition, the companies must notify channel owners that their child-directed content may be subject to the COPPA Rule’s obligations and provide annual training about complying with COPPA for employees who deal with YouTube channel owners. The settlement also prohibits Google and YouTube from violating the COPPA Rule, and requires them to provide notice about their data collection practices and obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting personal information from children."

The complaint and proposed consent decree were filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. After approval by a judge, the proposed settlement become final. Hopefully, the fine and additional requirements will be enough to deter future abuses.


Aggression Detectors: What They Are, Who Uses Them, And Why

Sound Intelligence logo Like most people, you probably have not heard of "aggression detectors." What are these devices? Who makes them? Who uses these devices and why? What consumers are affected?

To answer these questions, ProPublica explained who makes the devices and why:

"In response to mass shootings, some schools and hospitals are installing microphones equipped with algorithms. The devices purport to identify stress and anger before violence erupts... By deploying surveillance technology in public spaces like hallways and cafeterias, device makers and school officials hope to anticipate and prevent everything from mass shootings to underage smoking... Besides Sound Intelligence, South Korea-based Hanwha Techwin, formerly part of Samsung, makes a similar “scream detection” product that’s been installed in American schools. U.K.-based Audio Analytic used to sell its aggression- and gunshot-detection software to customers in Europe and the United States... Sound Intelligence CEO Derek van der Vorst said security cameras made by Sweden-based Axis Communications account for 90% of the detector’s worldwide sales, with privately held Louroe making up the other 10%... Mounted inconspicuously on the ceiling, Louroe’s smoke-detector-sized microphones measure aggression on a scale from zero to one. Users choose threshold settings. Any time they’re exceeded for long enough, the detector alerts the facility’s security apparatus, either through an existing surveillance system or a text message pinpointing the microphone that picked up the sound..."

Louroe Electronics logo The microphone-equipped sensors have been installed in a variety of industries. The Sound Intelligence website listed prisons, schools, public transportation, banks, healthcare institutes, retail stores, public spaces, and more. Louroe Electronics' site included a similar list plus law enforcement.

The ProPublica article also discussed several key issues. First, sensor accuracy and its own tests:

"... ProPublica’s analysis, as well as the experiences of some U.S. schools and hospitals that have used Sound Intelligence’s aggression detector, suggest that it can be less than reliable. At the heart of the device is what the company calls a machine learning algorithm. Our research found that it tends to equate aggression with rough, strained noises in a relatively high pitch, like [a student's] coughing. A 1994 YouTube clip of abrasive-sounding comedian Gilbert Gottfried ("Is it hot in here or am I crazy?") set off the detector, which analyzes sound but doesn’t take words or meaning into account... Sound Intelligence and Louroe said they prefer whenever possible to fine-tune sensors at each new customer’s location over a period of days or weeks..."

Second, accuracy concerns:

"[Sound Intelligence CEO] Van der Vorst acknowledged that the detector is imperfect and confirmed our finding that it registers rougher tones as aggressive. He said he “guarantees 100%” that the system will at times misconstrue innocent behavior. But he’s more concerned about failing to catch indicators of violence, and he said the system gives schools and other facilities a much-needed early warning system..."

This is interesting and troubling. Sound Intelligence's position seems to suggest that it is okay for sensor to miss-identify innocent persons as aggressive in order to avoid failures to identify truly aggressive persons seeking to do harm. That sounds like the old saying: the ends justify the means. Not good. The harms against innocent persons matters, especially when they are young students.

Yesterday's blog post described a far better corporate approach. Based upon current inaccuracies and biases with the technology, a police body camera assembled an ethics board to help guide its decisions regarding the technology; and then followed that board's recommendations not to implement facial recognition in its devices. When the inaccuracies and biases are resolved, then it would implement facial recognition.

What ethics boards have Sound Intelligence, Louroe, and other aggression detector makers utilized?

Third, the use of aggression detectors raises the issue of notice. Are there physical postings on-site at schools, hospitals, healthcare facilities, and other locations? Notice seems appropriate, especially since almost all entities provide notice (e.g., terms of service, privacy policy) for visitors to their websites.

Fourth, privacy concerns:

"Although a Louroe spokesman said the detector doesn’t intrude on student privacy because it only captures sound patterns deemed aggressive, its microphones allow administrators to record, replay and store those snippets of conversation indefinitely..."

I encourage parents of school-age children to read the entire ProPublica article. Concerned parents may demand explanations by school officials about the surveillance activities and devices used within their children's schools. Teachers may also be concerned. Patients at healthcare facilities may also be concerned.

Concerned persons may seek answers to several issues:

  • The vendor selection process, which aggression detector devices were selected, and why
  • Evidence supporting the accuracy of aggression detectors used
  • The school's/hospital's policy, if it has one, covering surveillance devices; plus any posted notices
  • The treatment and rights of wrongly identified persons (e.g., students, patients,, visitors, staff) by aggression detector devices
  • Approaches by the vendor and school to improve device accuracy for both types of errors: a) wrongly identified persons, and b) failures to identify truly aggressive or threatening persons
  • How long the school and/or vendor archive recorded conversations
  • What persons have access to the archived recordings
  • The data security methods used by the school and by the vendor to prevent unauthorized access and abuse of archived recordings
  • All entities, by name, which the school and/or vendor share archived recordings with

What are your opinions of aggression detectors? Of device inaccuracy? Of the privacy concerns?


Digital Jail: How Electronic Monitoring Drives Defendants Into Debt

[Editor's note: today's guest post, by reporters at ProPublica, discusses the convergence of law enforcement, outsourcing, smart devices, surveillance, "offender funded" programs, and "e-gentrification." It is reprinted with permission.]

By Ava Kofman, ProPublica

On Oct. 12, 2018, Daehaun White walked free, or so he thought. A guard handed him shoelaces and the $19 that had been in his pocket at the time of his booking, along with a letter from his public defender. The lanky 19-year-old had been sitting for almost a month in St. Louis’ Medium Security Institution, a city jail known as the Workhouse, after being pulled over for driving some friends around in a stolen Chevy Cavalier. When the police charged him with tampering with a motor vehicle — driving a car without its owner’s consent — and held him overnight, he assumed he would be released by morning. He told the police that he hadn’t known that the Chevy, which a friend had lent him a few hours earlier, was stolen. He had no previous convictions. But the $1,500 he needed for the bond was far beyond what he or his family could afford. It wasn’t until his public defender, Erika Wurst, persuaded the judge to lower the amount to $500 cash, and a nonprofit fund, the Bail Project, paid it for him, that he was able to leave the notoriously grim jail. “Once they said I was getting released, I was so excited I stopped listening,” he told me recently. He would no longer have to drink water blackened with mold or share a cell with rats, mice and cockroaches. He did a round of victory pushups and gave away all of the snack cakes he had been saving from the cafeteria.

Emass logo When he finally read Wurst’s letter, however, he realized there was a catch. Even though Wurst had argued against it, the judge, Nicole Colbert-Botchway, had ordered him to wear an ankle monitor that would track his location at every moment using GPS. For as long as he would wear it, he would be required to pay $10 a day to a private company, Eastern Missouri Alternative Sentencing Services, or EMASS. Just to get the monitor attached, he would have to report to EMASS and pay $300 up front — enough to cover the first 25 days, plus a $50 installation fee.

White didn’t know how to find that kind of money. Before his arrest, he was earning minimum wage as a temp, wrapping up boxes of shampoo. His father was largely absent, and his mother, Lakisha Thompson, had recently lost her job as the housekeeping manager at a Holiday Inn. Raising Daehaun and his four siblings, she had struggled to keep up with the bills. The family bounced between houses and apartments in northern St. Louis County, where, as a result of Jim Crow redlining, most of the area’s black population lives. In 2014, they were living on Canfield Drive in Ferguson when Michael Brown was shot and killed there by a police officer. During the ensuing turmoil, Thompson moved the family to Green Bay, Wisconsin. White felt out of place. He was looked down on for his sagging pants, called the N-word when riding his bike. After six months, he moved back to St. Louis County on his own to live with three of his siblings and stepsiblings in a gray house with vinyl siding.

When White got home on the night of his release, he was so overwhelmed to see his family again that he forgot about the letter. He spent the next few days hanging out with his siblings, his mother, who had returned to Missouri earlier that year, and his girlfriend, Demetria, who was seven months pregnant. He didn’t report to EMASS.

What he didn’t realize was that he had failed to meet a deadline. Typically, defendants assigned to monitors must pay EMASS in person and have the device installed within 24 hours of their release from jail. Otherwise, they have to return to court to explain why they’ve violated the judge’s orders. White, however, wasn’t called back for a hearing. Instead, a week after he left the Workhouse, Colbert-Botchway issued a warrant for his arrest.

Three days later, a large group of police officers knocked on Thompson’s door, looking for information about an unrelated case, a robbery. White and his brother had been making dinner with their mother, and the officers asked them for identification. White’s name matched the warrant issued by Colbert-Botchway. “They didn’t tell me what the warrant was for,” he said. “Just that it was for a violation of my release.” He was taken downtown and held for transfer back to the Workhouse. “I kept saying to myself, ’Why am I locked up?’” he recalled.

The next morning, Thompson called the courthouse to find the answer. She learned that her son had been jailed over his failure to acquire and pay for his GPS monitor. To get him out, she needed to pay EMASS on his behalf.

This seemed absurd to her. When Daehaun was 13, she had worn an ankle monitor after violating probation for a minor theft, but the state hadn’t required her to cover the cost of her own supervision. “This is a 19-year-old coming out of the Workhouse,” she told me recently. “There’s no way he has $300 saved.” Thompson felt that the court was forcing her to choose between getting White out of jail and supporting the rest of her family.

Over the past half-century, the number of people behind bars in the United States jumped by more than 500%, to 2.2 million. This extraordinary rise, often attributed to decades of “tough on crime” policies and harsh sentencing laws, has ensured that even as crime rates have dropped since the 1990s, the number of people locked up and the average length of their stay have increased. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the cost of keeping people in jails and prisons soared to $87 billion in 2015 from $19 billion in 1980, in current dollars.

In recent years, politicians on both sides of the aisle have joined criminal-justice reformers in recognizing mass incarceration as both a moral outrage and a fiscal sinkhole. As ankle bracelets have become compact and cost-effective, legislators have embraced them as an enlightened alternative. More than 125,000 people in the criminal-justice system were supervised with monitors in 2015, compared with just 53,000 people in 2005, according to the Pew Charitable Trusts. Although no current national tally is available, data from several cities — Austin, Texas; Indianapolis; Chicago; and San Francisco — show that this number continues to rise. Last December, the First Step Act, which includes provisions for home detention, was signed into law by President Donald Trump with support from the private prison giants GEO Group and CoreCivic. These corporations dominate the so-called community-corrections market — services such as day-reporting and electronic monitoring — that represents one of the fastest-growing revenue sectors of their industry.

By far the most decisive factor promoting the expansion of monitors is the financial one. The United States government pays for monitors for some of those in the federal criminal-justice system and for tens of thousands of immigrants supervised by Immigration and Customs Enforcement. But states and cities, which incur around 90% of the expenditures for jails and prisons, are increasingly passing the financial burden of the devices onto those who wear them. It costs St. Louis roughly $90 a day to detain a person awaiting trial in the Workhouse, where in 2017 the average stay was 291 days. When individuals pay EMASS $10 a day for their own supervision, it costs the city nothing. A 2014 study by NPR and the Brennan Center found that, with the exception of Hawaii, every state required people to pay at least part of the costs associated with GPS monitoring. Some probation offices and sheriffs run their own monitoring programs — renting the equipment from manufacturers, hiring staff and collecting fees directly from participants. Others have outsourced the supervision of defendants, parolees and probationers to private companies.

“There are a lot of judges who reflexively put people on monitors, without making much of a pretense of seriously weighing it at all,” said Chris Albin-Lackey, a senior legal adviser with Human Rights Watch who has researched private-supervision companies. “The limiting factor is the cost it might impose on the public, but when that expense is sourced out, even that minimal brake on judicial discretion goes out the window.”

Nowhere is the pressure to adopt monitors more pronounced than in places like St. Louis: cash-strapped municipalities with large populations of people awaiting trial. Nationwide on any given day, half a million people sit in crowded and expensive jails because, like Daehaun White, they cannot purchase their freedom.

As the movement to overhaul cash bail has challenged the constitutionality of jailing these defendants, judges and sheriffs have turned to monitors as an appealing substitute. In San Francisco, the number of people released from jail onto electronic monitors tripled after a 2018 ruling forced courts to release more defendants without bail. In Marion County, Indiana, where jail overcrowding is routine, roughly 5,000 defendants were put on monitors last year. “You would be hard-pressed to find bail-reform legislation in any state that does not include the possibility of electronic monitoring,” said Robin Steinberg, the chief executive of the Bail Project.

Yet like the system of wealth-based detention they are meant to help reform, ankle monitors often place poor people in special jeopardy. Across the country, defendants who have not been convicted of a crime are put on “offender funded” payment plans for monitors that sometimes cost more than their bail. And unlike bail, they don’t get the payment back, even if they’re found innocent. Although a federal survey shows that nearly 40% of Americans would have trouble finding $400 to cover an emergency, companies and courts routinely threaten to lock up defendants if they fall behind on payment. In Greenville, South Carolina, pretrial defendants can be sent back to jail when they fall three weeks behind on fees. (An officer for the Greenville County Detention Center defended this practice on the grounds that participants agree to the costs in advance.) In Mohave County, Arizona, pretrial defendants charged with sex offenses have faced rearrest if they fail to pay for their monitors, even if they prove that they can’t afford them. “We risk replacing an unjust cash-bail system,” Steinberg said, “with one just as unfair, inhumane and unnecessary.”

Many local judges, including in St. Louis, do not conduct hearings on a defendant’s ability to pay for private supervision before assigning them to it; those who do often overestimate poor people’s financial means. Without judicial oversight, defendants are vulnerable to private-supervision companies that set their own rates and charge interest when someone can’t pay up front. Some companies even give their employees bonuses for hitting collection targets.

It’s not only debt that can send defendants back to jail. People who may not otherwise be candidates for incarceration can be punished for breaking the lifestyle rules that come with the devices. A survey in California found that juveniles awaiting trial or on probation face especially difficult rules; in one county, juveniles on monitors were asked to follow more than 50 restrictions, including not participating “in any social activity.” For this reason, many advocates describe electronic monitoring as a “net-widener": Far from serving as an alternative to incarceration, it ends up sweeping more people into the system.

Dressed in a baggy yellow City of St. Louis Corrections shirt, White was walking to the van that would take him back to the Workhouse after his rearrest, when a guard called his name and handed him a bus ticket home. A few hours earlier, his mom had persuaded her sister to lend her the $300 that White owed EMASS. Wurst, his public defender, brought the receipt to court.

The next afternoon, White hitched a ride downtown to the EMASS office, where one of the company’s bond-compliance officers, Nick Buss, clipped a black box around his left ankle. Based in the majority white city of St. Charles, west of St. Louis, EMASS has several field offices throughout eastern Missouri. A former probation and parole officer, Michael Smith, founded the company in 1991 after Missouri became one of the first states to allow private companies to supervise some probationers. (Smith and other EMASS officials declined to comment for this story.)

The St. Louis area has made national headlines for its “offender funded” model of policing and punishment. Stricken by postindustrial decline and the 2008 financial crisis, its municipalities turned to their police departments and courts to make up for shortfalls in revenue. In 2015, the Ferguson Report by the United States Department of Justice put hard numbers to what black residents had long suspected: The police were targeting them with disproportionate arrests, traffic tickets and excessive fines.

EMASS may have saved the city some money, but it also created an extraordinary and arbitrary-seeming new expense for poor defendants. When cities cover the cost of monitoring, they often pay private contractors $2 to $3 a day for the same equipment and services for which EMASS charges defendants $10 a day. To come up with the money, EMASS clients told me, they had to find second jobs, take their children out of day care and cut into disability checks. Others hurried to plead guilty for no better reason than that being on probation was cheaper than paying for a monitor.

At the downtown office, White signed a contract stating that he would charge his monitor for an hour and a half each day and “report” to EMASS with $70 each week. He could shower, but was not to bathe or swim (the monitor is water-resistant, not waterproof). Interfering with the monitor’s functioning was a felony.

White assumed that GPS supervision would prove a minor annoyance. Instead, it was a constant burden. The box was bulky and the size of a fist, so he couldn’t hide it under his jeans. Whenever he left the house, people stared. There were snide comments ("nice bracelet") and cutting jokes. His brothers teased him about having a babysitter. “I’m nobody to watch,” he insisted.

The biggest problem was finding work. Confident and outgoing, White had never struggled to land jobs; after dropping out of high school in his junior year, he flipped burgers at McDonald’s and Steak ’n Shake. To pay for the monitor, he applied to be a custodian at Julia Davis Library, a cashier at Home Depot, a clerk at Menards. The conversation at Home Depot had gone especially well, White thought, until the interviewer casually asked what was on his leg.

To help improve his chances, he enrolled in Mission: St. Louis, a job-training center for people reentering society. One afternoon in January, he and a classmate role-played how to talk to potential employers about criminal charges. White didn’t know how much detail to go into. Should he tell interviewers that he was bringing his pregnant girlfriend some snacks when he was pulled over? He still isn’t sure, because a police officer came looking for him midway through the class. The battery on his monitor had died. The officer sent him home, and White missed the rest of the lesson.

With all of the restrictions and rules, keeping a job on a monitor can be as difficult as finding one. The hours for weekly check-ins at the downtown EMASS office — 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, and 1 p.m. until 5 p.m. on Mondays — are inconvenient for those who work. In 2011, the National Institute of Justice surveyed 5,000 people on electronic monitors and found that 22% said they had been fired or asked to leave a job because of the device. Juawanna Caves, a young St. Louis native and mother of two, was placed on a monitor in December after being charged with unlawful use of a weapon. She said she stopped showing up to work as a housekeeper when her co-workers made her uncomfortable by asking questions and later lost a job at a nursing home because too many exceptions had to be made for her court dates and EMASS check-ins.

Perpetual surveillance also takes a mental toll. Nearly everyone I spoke to who wore a monitor described feeling trapped, as though they were serving a sentence before they had even gone to trial. White was never really sure about what he could or couldn’t do under supervision. In January, when his girlfriend had their daughter, Rylan, White left the hospital shortly after the birth, under the impression that he had a midnight curfew. Later that night, he let his monitor die so that he could sneak back before sunrise to see the baby again.

EMASS makes its money from defendants. But it gets its power over them from judges. It was in 2012 that the judges of the St. Louis court started to use the company’s services — which previously involved people on probation for misdemeanors — for defendants awaiting trial. Last year, the company supervised 239 defendants in the city of St. Louis on GPS monitors, according to numbers provided by EMASS to the court. The alliance with the courts gives the company not just a steady stream of business but a reliable means of recouping debts: Unlike, say, a credit-card company, which must file a civil suit to collect from overdue customers, EMASS can initiate criminal-court proceedings, threatening defendants with another stay in the Workhouse.

In early April, I visited Judge Rex Burlison in his chambers on the 10th floor of the St. Louis civil courts building. A few months earlier, Burlison, who has short gray hair and light blue eyes, had been elected by his peers as presiding judge, overseeing the city’s docket, budget and operations, including the contract with EMASS. It was one of the first warm days of the year, and from the office window I could see sunlight glimmering on the silver Gateway Arch.

I asked Burlison about the court’s philosophy for using pretrial GPS. He stressed that while each case was unique and subject to the judge’s discretion, monitoring was most commonly used for defendants who posed a flight risk, endangered public safety or had an alleged victim. Judges vary in how often they order defendants to wear monitors, and critics have attacked the inconsistency. Colbert-Botchway, the judge who put White on a monitor, regularly made pretrial GPS a condition of release, according to public defenders. (Colbert-Botchway declined to comment.) But another St. Louis city judge, David Roither, told me, “I really don’t use it very often because people here are too poor to pay for it.”

Whenever a defendant on a monitor violates a condition of release, whether related to payment or a curfew or something else, EMASS sends a letter to the court. Last year, Burlison said, the court received two to three letters a week from EMASS about violations. In response, the judge usually calls the defendant in for a hearing. As far as he knew, Burlison said, judges did not incarcerate people simply for failing to pay EMASS debts. “Why would you?” he asked me. When people were put back in jail, he said, there were always other factors at play, like the defendant’s missing a hearing, for instance. (Issuing a warrant for White’s arrest without a hearing, he acknowledged after looking at the docket, was not the court’s standard practice.)

The contract with EMASS allows the court to assign indigent defendants to the company to oversee “at no cost.” Yet neither Burlison nor any of the other current or former judges I spoke with recalled waiving fees when ordering someone to wear an ankle monitor. When I asked Burlison why he didn’t, he said that he was concerned that if he started to make exceptions on the basis of income, the company might stop providing ankle-monitoring services in St. Louis.

“People get arrested because of life choices,” Burlison said. “Whether they’re good for the charge or not, they’re still arrested and have to deal with it, and part of dealing with it is the finances.” To release defendants without monitors simply because they can’t afford the fee, he said, would be to disregard the safety of their victims or the community. “We can’t just release everybody because they’re poor,” he continued.

But many people in the Workhouse awaiting trial are poor. In January, civil rights groups filed suit against the city and the court, claiming that the St. Louis bail system violated the Constitution, in part by discriminating against those who can’t afford to post bail. That same month, the Missouri Supreme Court announced new rules that urged local courts to consider releasing defendants without monetary conditions and to waive fees for poor people placed on monitors. Shortly before the rules went into effect, on July 1, Burlison said that the city intends to shift the way ankle monitors are distributed and plans to establish a fund to help indigent defendants pay for their ankle bracelets. But he said he didn’t know how much money would be in the fund or whether it was temporary or permanent. The need for funding could grow quickly. The pending bail lawsuit has temporarily spurred the release of more defendants from custody, and as a result, public defenders say, the demand for monitors has increased.

Judges are anxious about what people released without posting bail might do once they get out. Several told me that monitors may ensure that the defendants return to court. Not unlike doctors who order a battery of tests for a mildly ill patient to avoid a potential malpractice suit, judges seem to view monitors as a precaution against their faces appearing on the front page of the newspaper. “Every judge’s fear is to let somebody out on recognizance and he commits murder, and then everyone asks, ’How in the hell was this person let out?’” said Robert Dierker, who served as a judge in St. Louis from 1986 to 2017 and now represents the city in the bail lawsuit. “But with GPS, you can say, ’Well, I have him on GPS, what else can I do?’”

Critics of monitors contend that their public-safety appeal is illusory: If defendants are intent on harming someone or skipping town, the bracelet, which can be easily removed with a pair of scissors, would not stop them. Studies showing that people tracked by GPS appear in court more reliably are scarce, and research about its effectiveness as a deterrent is inconclusive.

“The fundamental question is, What purpose is electronic monitoring serving?” said Blake Strode, the executive director of ArchCity Defenders, a nonprofit civil rights law firm in St. Louis that is one of several firms representing the plaintiffs in the bail lawsuit. “If the only purpose it’s serving is to make judges feel better because they don’t want to be on the hook if something goes wrong, then that’s not a sensible approach. We should not simply be monitoring for monitoring’s sake.”

Electronic monitoring was first conceived in the early 1960s by Ralph and Robert Gable, identical twins studying at Harvard under the psychologists Timothy Leary and B.F. Skinner, respectively. Influenced in part by Skinner’s theories of positive reinforcement, the Gables rigged up some surplus missile-tracking equipment to monitor teenagers on probation; those who showed up at the right places at the right times were rewarded with movie tickets, limo rides and other prizes.

Although this round-the-clock monitoring was intended as a tool for rehabilitation, observers and participants alike soon recognized its potential to enhance surveillance. All but two of the 16 volunteers in their initial study dropped out, finding the two bulky radio transmitters oppressive. “They felt like it was a prosthetic conscience, and who would want Mother all the time along with you?” Robert Gable told me. Psychology Today labeled the invention a “belt from Big Brother.”

The reality of electronic monitoring today is that Big Brother is watching some groups more than others. No national statistics are available on the racial breakdown of Americans wearing ankle monitors, but all indications suggest that mass supervision, like mass incarceration, disproportionately affects black people. In Cook County, Illinois, for instance, black people make up 24% of the population, and 67% of those on monitors. The sociologist Simone Browne has connected contemporary surveillance technologies like GPS monitors to America’s long history of controlling where black people live, move and work. In her 2015 book, “Dark Matters,” she traces the ways in which “surveillance is nothing new to black folks,” from the branding of enslaved people and the shackling of convict laborers to Jim Crow segregation and the home visits of welfare agencies. These historical inequities, Browne notes, influence where and on whom new tools like ankle monitors are imposed.

For some black families, including White’s, monitoring stretches across generations. Annette Taylor, the director of Ripple Effect, an advocacy group for prisoners and their families based in Champaign, Illinois, has seen her ex-husband, brother, son, nephew and sister’s husband wear ankle monitors over the years. She had to wear one herself, about a decade ago, she said, for driving with a suspended license. “You’re making people a prisoner of their home,” she told me. When her son was paroled and placed on house arrest, he couldn’t live with her, because he was forbidden to associate with people convicted of felonies, including his stepfather, who was also on house arrest.

Some people on monitors are further constrained by geographic restrictions — areas in the city or neighborhood that they can’t go without triggering an alarm. James Kilgore, a research scholar at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, has cautioned that these exclusionary zones could lead to “e-gentrification,” effectively keeping people out of more-prosperous neighborhoods. In 2016, after serving four years in prison for drug conspiracy, Bryan Otero wore a monitor as a condition of parole. He commuted from the Bronx to jobs at a restaurant and a department store in Manhattan, but he couldn’t visit his family or doctor because he was forbidden to enter a swath of Manhattan between 117th Street and 131st Street. “All my family and childhood friends live in that area,” he said. “I grew up there.”

Michelle Alexander, a legal scholar and columnist for The Times, has argued that monitoring engenders a new form of oppression under the guise of progress. In her 2010 book, “The New Jim Crow,” she wrote that the term “mass incarceration” should refer to the “system that locks people not only behind actual bars in actual prisons, but also behind virtual bars and virtual walls — walls that are invisible to the naked eye but function nearly as effectively as Jim Crow laws once did at locking people of color into a permanent second-class citizenship.”

BI Incorporated logo As the cost of monitoring continues to fall, those who are required to submit to it may worry less about the expense and more about the intrusive surveillance. The devices, some of which are equipped with two-way microphones, can give corrections officials unprecedented access to the private lives not just of those monitored but also of their families and friends. GPS location data appeals to the police, who can use it to investigate crimes. Already the goal is both to track what individuals are doing and to anticipate what they might do next. BI Incorporated, an electronic-monitoring subsidiary of GEO Group, has the ability to assign risk scores to the behavioral patterns of those monitored, so that law enforcement can “address potential problems before they happen.” Judges leery of recidivism have begun to embrace risk-assessment tools. As a result, defendants who have yet to be convicted of an offense in court may be categorized by their future chances of reoffending.

The combination of GPS location data with other tracking technologies such as automatic license-plate readers represents an uncharted frontier for finer-grained surveillance. In some cities, police have concentrated these tools in neighborhoods of color. A CityLab investigation found that Baltimore police were more likely to deploy the Stingray — the controversial and secretive cellphone tracking technology — where African Americans lived. In the aftermath of Freddie Gray’s death in 2015, the police spied on Black Lives Matter protesters with face recognition technology. Given this pattern, the term “electronic monitoring” may soon refer not just to a specific piece of equipment but to an all-encompassing strategy.

If the evolution of the criminal-justice system is any guide, it is very likely that the ankle bracelet will go out of fashion. Some GPS monitoring vendors have already started to offer smartphone applications that verify someone’s location through voice and face recognition. These apps, with names like Smart-LINK and Shadowtrack, promise to be cheaper and more convenient than a boxy bracelet. They’re also less visible, mitigating the stigma and normalizing surveillance. While reducing the number of people in physical prison, these seductive applications could, paradoxically, increase its reach. For the nearly 4.5 million Americans on probation or parole, it is not difficult to imagine a virtual prison system as ubiquitous — and invasive — as Instagram or Facebook.

On January 24, exactly three months after White had his monitor installed, his public defender successfully argued in court for its removal. His phone service had been shut off because he had fallen behind on the bill, so his mother told him the good news over video chat.

When White showed up to EMASS a few days later to have the ankle bracelet removed, he said, one of the company’s employees told him that he couldn’t take off his monitor until he paid his debt. White offered him the $35 in his wallet — all the money he had. It wasn’t enough. The employee explained that he needed to pay at least half of the $700 he owed. Somewhere in the contract he had signed months earlier, White had agreed to pay his full balance “at the time of removal.” But as White saw it, the court that had ordered the monitor’s installation was now ordering its removal. Didn’t that count?

“That’s the only thing that’s killing me,” White told me a few weeks later, in early March. “Why are you all not taking it off?” We were in his brother’s room, which, unlike White’s down the hall, had space for a wobbly chair. White sat on the bed, his head resting against the frame, while his brother sat on the other end by the TV, mumbling commands into a headset for the fantasy video game Fortnite. By then, the prosecutor had offered White two to three years of probation in exchange for a plea. (White is waiting to hear if he has been accepted into the city’s diversion program for “youthful offenders,” which would allow him to avoid pleading and wipe the charges from his record in a year.)

White was wearing a loosefitting Nike track jacket and red sweats that bunched up over the top of his monitor. He had recently stopped charging it, and so far, the police hadn’t come knocking. “I don’t even have to have it on,” he said, looking down at his ankle. “But without a job, I can’t get it taken off.” In the last few weeks, he had sold his laptop, his phone and his TV. That cash went to rent, food and his daughter, and what was left barely made a dent in what he owed EMASS.

It was a Monday — a check-in day — but he hadn’t been reporting for the past couple of weeks. He didn’t see the point; he didn’t have the money to get the monitor removed and the office was an hour away by bus. I offered him a ride.

EMASS check-ins take place in a three-story brick building with a low-slung facade draped in ivy. The office doesn’t take cash payments, and a Western Union is conveniently located next door. The other men in the waiting room were also wearing monitors. When it was White’s turn to check-in, Buss, the bond-compliance officer, unclipped the band from his ankle and threw the device into a bin, White said. He wasn’t sure why EMASS had now softened its approach, but his debts nonetheless remained.

Buss calculated the money White owed going back to November: $755, plus 10% annual interest. Over the next nine months, EMASS expected him to make monthly payments that would add up to $850 — more than the court had required for his bond. White looked at the receipt and shook his head. “I get in trouble for living,” he said as he walked out of the office. “For being me.”

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Facebook Paid Teens To Install Unauthorized Spyware On Their Phones. Plenty Of Questions Remain

Facebook logoWhile today is the 15th anniversary of Facebook,  more important news rules. Last week featured plenty of news about Facebook. TechCrunch reported on Tuesday:

"Since 2016, Facebook has been paying users ages 13 to 35 up to $20 per month plus referral fees to sell their privacy by installing the iOS or Android “Facebook Research” app. Facebook even asked users to screenshot their Amazon order history page. The program is administered through beta testing services Applause, BetaBound and uTest to cloak Facebook’s involvement, and is referred to in some documentation as “Project Atlas” — a fitting name for Facebook’s effort to map new trends and rivals around the globe... Facebook admitted to TechCrunch it was running the Research program to gather data on usage habits."

So, teenagers installed surveillance software on their phones and tablets, to spy for Facebook on themselves, Facebook's competitors,, and others. This is huge news for several reasons. First, the "Facebook Research" app is VPN (Virtual Private Network) software which:

"... lets the company suck in all of a user’s phone and web activity, similar to Facebook’s Onavo Protect app that Apple banned in June and that was removed in August. Facebook sidesteps the App Store and rewards teenagers and adults to download the Research app and give it root access to network traffic in what may be a violation of Apple policy..."

Reportedly, the Research app collected massive amounts of information: private messages in social media apps, chats from in instant messaging apps, photos/videos sent to others, emails, web searches, web browsing activity, and geo-location data. So, a very intrusive app. And, after being forced to remove oneintrusive app from Apple's store, Facebook continued anyway -- with another app that performed the same function. Not good.

Second, there is the moral issue of using the youngest users as spies... persons who arguably have the lease experience and skills at reading complex documents: corporate terms-of-use and privacy policies. I wonder how many teenagers notified their friends of the spying and data collection. How many teenagers fully understood what they were doing? How many parents were aware of the activity and payments? How many parents notified the parents of their children's friends? How many teens installed the spyware on both their iPhones and iPads? Lots of unanswered questions.

Third, Apple responded quickly. TechCrunch reported Wednesday morning:

"... Apple blocked Facebook’s Research VPN app before the social network could voluntarily shut it down... Apple tells TechCrunch that yesterday evening it revoked the Enterprise Certificate that allows Facebook to distribute the Research app without going through the App Store."

Facebook's usage of the Enterprise Certificate is significant. TechCrunch also published a statement by Apple:

"We designed our Enterprise Developer Program solely for the internal distribution of apps within an organization... Facebook has been using their membership to distribute a data-collecting app to consumers, which is a clear breach of their agreement with Apple. Any developer using their enterprise certificates to distribute apps to consumers will have their certificates revoked..."

So, the Research app violated Apple's policy. Not good. The app also performs similar functions as the banned Onavo VPN app. Worse. This sounds like an end-run to me. So as punishment for its end-run actions, Apple temporarily disable the certificates for internal corporate apps.

Axios described very well Facebook's behavior:

"Facebook took a program designed to let businesses internally test their own app and used it to monitor most, if not everything, a user did on their phone — a degree of surveillance barred in the official App Store."

And the animated Facebook image in the Axios article sure looks like a liar-liar-logo-on-fire image. LOL! Pure gold! Seriously, Facebook's behavior indicates questionable ethics, and/or an expectation of not getting caught. Reportedly, the internal apps which were shut down included shuttle schedules, campus maps, and company calendars. After that, some Facebook employees discussed quitting.

And, it raises more questions. Which Facebook executives approved Project Atlas? What advice did Facebook's legal staff provide prior to approval? Was that advice followed or ignored?

Google logo Fourth, TechCrunch also reported:

"Facebook’s Research program will continue to run on Android."

What? So, Google devices were involved, too. Is this spy program okay with Google executives? A follow-up report on Wednesday by TechCrunch:

"Google has been running an app called Screenwise Meter, which bears a strong resemblance to the app distributed by Facebook Research that has now been barred by Apple... Google invites users aged 18 and up (or 13 if part of a family group) to download the app by way of a special code and registration process using an Enterprise Certificate. That’s the same type of policy violation that led Apple to shut down Facebook’s similar Research VPN iOS app..."

Oy! So, Google operates like Facebook. Also reported by TechCrunch:

"The Screenwise Meter iOS app should not have operated under Apple’s developer enterprise program — this was a mistake, and we apologize. We have disabled this app on iOS devices..."

So, Google will terminate its spy program on Apple devices, but continue its own program with Facebook. Hmmmmm. Well, that answers some questions. I guess Google executives are okay with this spy program. More questions remain.

Fifth, Facebook tried to defend the Research app and its actions in an internal memo to employees. On Thursday, TechCrunch tore apart the claims in an internal Facebook memo from vice president Pedro Canahuati. Chiefly:

"Facebook claims it didn’t hide the program, but it was never formally announced like every other Facebook product. There were no Facebook Help pages, blog posts, or support info from the company. It used intermediaries Applause and CentreCode to run the program under names like Project Atlas and Project Kodiak. Users only found out Facebook was involved once they started the sign-up process and signed a non-disclosure agreement prohibiting them from discussing it publicly... Facebook claims it wasn’t “spying,” yet it never fully laid out the specific kinds of information it would collect. In some cases, descriptions of the app’s data collection power were included in merely a footnote. The program did not specify data types gathered, only saying it would scoop up “which apps are on your phone, how and when you use them” and “information about your internet browsing activity.” The parental consent form from Facebook and Applause lists none of the specific types of data collected...

So, Research app participants (e.g., teenagers, parents) couldn't discuss nor warn their friends (and their friends' parents) about the data collection. I strongly encourage everyone to read the entire TechCrunch analysis. It is eye-opening.

Sixth, a reader shared concerns about whether Facebook's actions violated federal laws. Did Project Atlas violate the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA); specifically the "anti-circumvention" provision, which prohibits avoiding the security protections in software? Did it violate the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act? What about breach-of-contract and fraud laws? What about states' laws? So, one could ask similar questions about Google's actions, too.

I am not an attorney. Hopefully, some attorneys will weigh in on these questions. Probably, some skilled attorneys will investigate various legal options.

All of this is very disturbing. Is this what consumers can expect of Silicon Valley firms? Is this the best tech firms can do? Is this the low level the United States has sunk to? Kudos to the TechCrunch staff for some excellent reporting.

What are your opinions of Project Atlas? Of Facebook's behavior? Of Google's?


Oath To Pay Almost $5 Million To Settle Charges By New York AG Regarding Children's Privacy Violations

Oath Inc. logo Barbara D. Underwood, the Attorney General (AG) for New York State, announced last week a settlement with Oath, Inc. for violating the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Oath Inc. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Verizon Communications. Until June 2017, Oath was known as AOL Inc. ("AOL"). The announcement stated:

"The Attorney General’s Office found that AOL conducted billions of auctions for ad space on hundreds of websites the company knew were directed to children under the age of 13. Through these auctions, AOL collected, used, and disclosed personal information from the websites’ users in violation of COPPA, enabling advertisers to track and serve targeted ads to young children. The company has agreed to adopt comprehensive reforms to protect children from improper tracking and pay a record $4.95 million in penalties..."

The United States Congress enacted COPPA in 1998 to protect the safety and privacy of young children online. As many parents know, young children don't understand complicated legal documents such as terms-of-use and privacy policies. COPPA prohibits operators of certain websites from collecting, using, or disclosing personal information (e.g., first and last name, e-mail address) of children under the age of 13 without first obtaining parental consent.

The definition of "personal information" was revised in 2013 to include persistent identifiers that can be used to recognize a user over time and across websites, such as the ID found in a web browser cookie or an Internet Protocol (“IP”) address. The revision effectively prohibits covered operators from using cookies, IP addresses, and other persistent identifiers to track users across websites for most advertising purposes on COPPA-covered websites.

The announcement by AG Underwood explained the alleged violations in detail. Despite policies to the contrary:

"... AOL nevertheless used its display ad exchange to conduct billions of auctions for ad space on websites that it knew to be directed to children under the age of 13 and subject to COPPA. AOL obtained this knowledge in two ways. First, several AOL clients provided notice to AOL that their websites were subject to COPPA. These clients identified more than a dozen COPPA-covered websites to AOL. AOL conducted at least 1.3 billion auctions of display ad space from these websites. Second, AOL itself determined that certain websites were directed to children under the age of 13 when it conducted a review of the content and privacy policies of client websites. Through these reviews, AOL identified hundreds of additional websites that were subject to COPPA. AOL conducted at least 750 million auctions of display ad space from these websites."

AG Underwood said in a statement:

"COPPA is meant to protect young children from being tracked and targeted by advertisers online. AOL flagrantly violated the law – and children’s privacy – and will now pay the largest-ever penalty under COPPA. My office remains committed to protecting children online and will continue to hold accountable those who violate the law."

A check at press time of both the press and "company values" sections of Oath's site failed to find any mentions of the settlement. TechCrunch reported on December 4th:

"We reached out to Oath with a number of questions about this privacy failure. But a spokesman did not engage with any of them directly — emailing a short statement instead, in which it writes: "We are pleased to see this matter resolved and remain wholly committed to protecting children’s privacy online." The spokesman also did not confirm nor dispute the contents of the New York Times report."

Hmmm. Almost a week has passed since AG Underwood's December 4th announcement. You'd think that Oath management would have released a statement by now. Maybe Oath isn't as committed to children's online privacy as they claim. Something for parents to note.

The National Law Review provided some context:

"...in 2016, the New York AG concluded a two-year investigation into the tracking practices of four online publishers for alleged COPPA violations... As recently as September of this year, the New Mexico AG filed a lawsuit for alleged COPPA violations against a children's game app company, Tiny Lab Productions, and the online ad companies that work within Tiny Lab's, including those run by Google and Twitter... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) continues to vigorously enforce COPPA, closing out investigations of alleged COPPA violations against smart toy manufacturer VTech and online talent search company Explore Talent... there have been a total of 28 enforcement proceedings since the COPPA rule was issued in 2000."

You can read about many of these actions in this blog, and how COPPA was strengthened in 2013.

So, the COPPA law works well and it is being vigorously enforced. Kudos to AG Underwood, her staff, and other states' AGs for taking these actions. What are your opinions about the AOL/Oath settlement?


Some Surprising Facts About Facebook And Its Users

Facebook logo The Pew Research Center announced findings from its latest survey of social media users:

  • About two-thirds (68%) of adults in the United States use Facebook. That is unchanged from April 2016, but up from 54% in August 2012. Only Youtube gets more adult usage (73%).
  • About three-quarters (74%) of adult Facebook users visit the site at least once a day. That's higher than Snapchat (63%) and Instagram (60%).
  • Facebook is popular across all demographic groups in the United States: 74% of women use it, as do 62% of men, 81% of persons ages 18 to 29, and 41% of persons ages 65 and older.
  • Usage by teenagers has fallen to 51% (at March/April 2018) from 71% during 2014 to 2015. More teens use other social media services: YouTube (85%), Instagram (72%) and Snapchat (69%).
  • 43% of adults use Facebook as a news source. That is higher than other social media services: YouTube (21%), Twitter (12%), Instagram (8%), and LinkedIn (6%). More women (61%) use Facebook as a news source than men (39%). More whites (62%) use Facebook as a news source than nonwhites (37%).
  • 54% of adult users said they adjusted their privacy settings during the past 12 months. 42% said they have taken a break from checking the platform for several weeks or more. 26% said they have deleted the app from their phone during the past year.

Perhaps, the most troubling finding:

"Many adult Facebook users in the U.S. lack a clear understanding of how the platform’s news feed works, according to the May and June survey. Around half of these users (53%) say they do not understand why certain posts are included in their news feed and others are not, including 20% who say they do not understand this at all."

Facebook users should know that the service does not display in their news feed all posts by their friends and groups. Facebook's proprietary algorithm -- called its "secret sauce" by some -- displays items it thinks users will engage with = click the "Like" or other emotion buttons. This makes Facebook a terrible news source, since it doesn't display all news -- only the news you (probably already) agree with.

That's like living life in an online bubble. Sadly, there is more.

If you haven't watched it, PBS has broadcast a two-part documentary titled, "The Facebook Dilemma" (see trailer below), which arguable could have been titled, "the dark side of sharing." The Frontline documentary rightly discusses Facebook's approaches to news, privacy, its focus upon growth via advertising revenues, how various groups have used the service as a weapon, and Facebook's extensive data collection about everyone.

Yes, everyone. Obviously, Facebook collects data about its users. The service also collects data about nonusers in what the industry calls "shadow profiles." CNet explained that during an April:

"... hearing before the House Energy and Commerce Committee, the Facebook CEO confirmed the company collects information on nonusers. "In general, we collect data of people who have not signed up for Facebook for security purposes," he said... That data comes from a range of sources, said Nate Cardozo, senior staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. That includes brokers who sell customer information that you gave to other businesses, as well as web browsing data sent to Facebook when you "like" content or make a purchase on a page outside of the social network. It also includes data about you pulled from other Facebook users' contacts lists, no matter how tenuous your connection to them might be. "Those are the [data sources] we're aware of," Cardozo said."

So, there might be more data sources besides the ones we know about. Facebook isn't saying. So much for greater transparency and control claims by Mr. Zuckerberg. Moreover, data breaches highlight the problems with the service's massive data collection and storage:

"The fact that Facebook has [shadow profiles] data isn't new. In 2013, the social network revealed that user data had been exposed by a bug in its system. In the process, it said it had amassed contact information from users and matched it against existing user profiles on the social network. That explained how the leaked data included information users hadn't directly handed over to Facebook. For example, if you gave the social network access to the contacts in your phone, it could have taken your mom's second email address and added it to the information your mom already gave to Facebook herself..."

So, Facebook probably launched shadow profiles when it introduced its mobile app. That means, if you uploaded the address book in your phone to Facebook, then you helped the service collect information about nonusers, too. This means Facebook acts more like a massive advertising network than simply a social media service.

How has Facebook been able to collect massive amounts of data about both users and nonusers? According to the Frontline documentary, we consumers have lax privacy laws in the United States to thank for this massive surveillance advertising mechanism. What do you think?


Tips For Parents To Teach Their Children Online Safety

Today's children often use mobile devices at very young ages... four, five, or six years of age. And they don't know anything about online dangers: computer viruses, stalking, cyber-bullying, identity theft, phishing scams, ransomware, and more. Nor do they know how to read terms-of-use and privacy policies. It is parents' responsibility to teach them.

NordVPN logo NordVPN, a maker of privacy software, offers several tips to help parents teach their children about online safety:

"1. Set an example: If you want your kid to be careful and responsible online, you should start with yourself."

Children watch their parents. If you practice good online safety habits, they will learn from watching you. And:

"2. Start talking to your kid early and do it often: If your child already knows how to play a video on Youtube or is able to download a gaming app without your help, they also should learn how to do it safely. Therefore, it’s important to start explaining the basics of privacy and cybersecurity at an early age."

So, long before having the "sex talk" with your children, parents should have the online safety talk. Developing good online safety habits at a young age will help children throughout their lives; especially as adults:

"3. Explain why safe behavior matters: Give relatable examples of what personal information is – your address, social security number, phone number, account credentials, and stress why you can never share this information with strangers."

You wouldn't give this information to a stranger on a city street. The same applies online. That also means discussing social media:

"4. Social media and messaging: a) don’t accept friend requests from people you don’t know; b) never send your pictures to strangers; c) make sure only your friends can see what you post on Facebook; d) turn on timeline review to check posts you are tagged in before they appear on your Facebook timeline; e) if someone asks you for some personal information, always tell your parents; f) don’t share too much on your profile (e.g., home address, phone number, current location); and g) don’t use your social media logins to authorize apps."

These are the basics. Read the entire list of online safety tips for parents by Nord VPN.


No, a Teen Did Not Hack a State Election

[Editor's note: today's guest post, by reporters at ProPublica, is the latest in a series about the integrity and security of voting systems in the United States. It is reprinted with permission.]

By Lilia Chang, ProPublica

Headlines from Def Con, a hacking conference held this month in Las Vegas, might have left some thinking that infiltrating state election websites and affecting the 2018 midterm results would be child’s play.

Articles reported that teenage hackers at the event were able to “crash the upcoming midterm elections” and that it had taken “an 11-year-old hacker just 10 minutes to change election results.” A first-person account by a 17-year-old in Politico Magazine described how he shut down a website that would tally votes in November, “bringing the election to a screeching halt.”

But now, elections experts are raising concerns that misunderstandings about the event — many of them stoked by its organizers — have left people with a distorted sense of its implications.

In a website published before r00tz Asylum, the youth section of Def Con, organizers indicated that students would attempt to hack exact duplicates of state election websites, referring to them as “replicas” or “exact clones.” (The language was scaled back after the conference to simply say “clones.”)

Instead, students were working with look-a-likes created for the event that had vulnerabilities they were coached to find. Organizers provided them with cheat sheets, and adults walked the students through the challenges they would encounter.

Josh Franklin, an elections expert formerly at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and a speaker at Def Con, called the websites “fake.”

“When I learned that they were not using exact copies and pains hadn’t been taken to more properly replicate the underlying infrastructure, I was definitely saddened,” Franklin said.

Franklin and David Becker, the executive director of the Center for Election Innovation & Research, also pointed out that while state election websites report voting results, they do not actually tabulate votes. This information is kept separately and would not be affected if hackers got into sites that display vote totals.

“It would be lunacy to directly connect the election management system, of which the tabulation system is a part of, to the internet,” Franklin said.

Jake Braun, the co-organizer of the event, defended the attention-grabbing way it was framed, saying the security issues of election websites haven’t gotten enough attention. Those questioning the technical details of the mock sites and whether their vulnerabilities were realistic are missing the point, he insisted.

“We want elections officials to start putting together communications redundancy plans so they have protocol in place to communicate with voters and the media and so on if this happens on election day,” he said.

Braun provided ProPublica with a report that r00tz plans to circulate more widely that explains the technical underpinnings of the mock websites. They were designed to be vulnerable to a SQL injection attack, a common hack, the report says.

Franklin acknowledged that some state election reporting sites do indeed have this vulnerability, but he said that states have been aware of it for months and are in the process of protecting against it.

Becker said the details spelled out in the r00tz report would have been helpful to have from the start.

“We have to be really careful about adding to the hysteria about our election system not working or being too vulnerable because that’s exactly what someone like President Putin wants,” Becker said. Instead, Becker said that “we should find real vulnerabilities and address them as elections officials are working really hard to do.”

Filed under:

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Health Experts To Facebook: Turn Off Messenger Kids

Facebook logo In December 2017, Facebook launched its Messenger Kids service for children ages six to 13. The service includes a free video calling and messaging app where children can connect only with parent-approved contacts. The ad-free service includes masks, frames, stickers and GIFs for children to, "ids can create fun videos and decorate photos to share moments with loved ones."

Pediatricians and health experts are very concerned. Earlier today, dozens of health professionals sent a letter to Facebook (Adobe PDF) urging the social networking giant to terminate Messenger Kids. The letter stated in part:

"Given Facebook’s enormous reach and marketing prowess, Messenger Kids will likely be the first social media platform widely used by elementary school children. But a growing body of research demonstrates that excessive use of digital devices and social media is harmful to children and teens, making it very likely this new app will undermine children’s healthy development.

Younger children are simply not ready to have social media accounts. They are not old enough to navigate the complexities of online relationships, which often lead to misunderstandings and conflicts even among more mature users. They also do not have a fully developed understanding of privacy, including what’s appropriate to share with others and who has access to their conversations, pictures, and videos.

At a time when there is mounting concern about how social media use affects adolescents’ well being, it is particularly irresponsible to encourage children as young as preschoolers to start using a Facebook product. Social media use by teens is linked to significantly higher rates of depression, and adolescents who spend an hour a day chatting on social networks report less satisfaction with nearly every aspect of their lives. Eighth graders who use social media for 6 - 9 hours per week are 47% more likely to report they are unhappy than their peers who use social media less often. A study of girls between the ages of 10 and 12 found the more they used social networking sites like Facebook, the more likely they were to idealize thinness, have concerns about their bodies, and to have dieted. Teen social media use is also linked to unhealthy sleep habits. Messenger Kids is likely to increase the amount of time pre-school and elementary age kids spend with digital devices. Already, adolescents report difficulty moderating their own social media use: 78% check their phones at least hourly, and 50% say they feel addicted to their phones. Almost half of parents say that regulating their child’s screen time is a constant battle. Messenger Kids will exacerbate this problem... Encouraging kids to move their friendships online will interfere with and displace the face-to-face interactions and play that are crucial for building healthy developmental skills, including the ability to read human emotion, delay gratification, and engage with the physical world..."

The letter contains footnotes to citations with supporting research about the above health concerns. Reportedly, Facebook consulted with the National PTA and several academics before introducing the app. Messenger Kids is a separate service, so children using it can't be found using Facebook's search mechanism.

The letter from health professionals to Facebook also addressed safety concerns:

"Facebook claims that Messenger Kids will provide a safe alternative for the children who have lied their way onto social media platforms designed for teens and adults. But the 11- and 12-year-olds who currently use Snapchat, Instagram, or Facebook are unlikely to switch to an app that is clearly designed for younger children. Messenger Kids is not responding to a need – it is creating one. It appeals primarily to children who otherwise would not have their own social media accounts. It is disingenuous to use Facebook’s failure to keep underage users off their platforms as a rationale for targeting younger children with a new product."

Earlier this month, Facebook's CEO acknowledged problems and promised to do better. We shall see if Facebook's management listens to the documented concerns of pediatricians and health professionals.

What are your opinions about children ages 6 to 13 using social media? About Messenger Kids? Should Facebook terminate Messenger Kids?

Facebook-messenger-kids-how-to


FCC Action To Kill Net Neutrality Will Likely Hurt Public Libraries, The Poor, And The Disabled

American Library Association logo Jim Neal, the president of the American Library Association, released a statement condemning the December 14th vote by the Republican-led U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to kill net neutrality protections for internet users:

"The majority of the FCC has just dealt a blow to equitable access to online information and services which puts libraries, our patrons, and America’s communities at risk... By rolling back essential and enforceable net neutrality protections, the FCC has enabled commercial interests at the expense of the public who depends on the internet as their primary means of information gathering, learning, and communication. We will continue to fight the FCC’s decision and advocate for strong, enforceable net neutrality protections."

New York Public Library logo The Verge interviewed New York Public Library (NYPL) president Tony Marx, and Greg Cam the NYPL director of information policy. During 2017, the NYPL provided 3.1 million computer sessions across all branches (using 4,700 computers), plus 3 million wireless sessions. Based upon that activity, Marx said:

"... the simple fact is that the poorest of New York rely on the library as the only place they can go and get free use of computers and free Wi-Fi. It’s one of the reasons why the library is the most visited civic institution in New York. We have also, in recent years, been lending people what we call hot spots, which are Wi-Fi boxes they can take home, typically for a year. That gives them digital access at home — broadband access — which something like 2 million New Yorkers can’t afford and don’t have..."

And, New York City is one of the more prosperous areas of the country. It makes one wonder how citizens in poor or rural areas; or in areas without any public libraries will manage. Disabled users will also be negatively affected by the FCC vote. Marx explained:

"... the New York Public Library runs the Andrew Heiskell Library for the visually impaired. I believe it is a three-state depository, so it plays a role in getting access in all the ways you described — not just in New York City but way beyond. A lot of that now happens online and it could simply stop working, which means they’re gonna cut people off completely."

Cram explained the wide range of tasks people use the internet for at public libraries:

"Our users depend on the library, and libraries in general, for things like completing homework assignments, locating e-government resources, e-government services, accessing oral histories and primary source materials. Things that are resource-intensive like video and audio and image collections are dependent on a free and open internet. Also things like applying and interviewing for jobs. More and more jobs involve a first round of interviews that are done over the internet. If we have to put things in the slow lane, we’re worried about those interview services being downgraded."

"Slow lanes" are one of about five possible consequences by the FCC decision to kill net neutrality. Marx summarized the concerns of many library managers:

"We live in a world where access to information is essential for opportunity, for learning, for success, for civic life, for checking facts. Anything that reduces that, particularly for people who can’t afford alternatives, is a body blow to the basic democratic principles that the library stands for. Whether people or the library are shoved to the slow lane, and/or forced to pay to be in the fast lane with resources that are already stretched thin, is really sort of shocking. To put it sort of bluntly, the FCC should be defending communications."

Basically, internet access is a utility like water or electricity; something corporate providers have long denied and fought. Everyone needs and uses broadband internet. What are your opinions?

[Editor's addendum: for the latest information, visit the Guide to New York Libraries.]


German Regulator Bans Smartwatches For Children

VTech Kidizoom DX smartwatch for children. Select for larger version Parents: considering a smartwatch for your children or grandchildren? Consider the privacy implications first. Bleeping Computer reported on Friday:

"Germany's Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur), the country's telecommunications agency, has banned the sale of children's smartwatches after it classified such devices as "prohibited listening devices." The ban was announced earlier today... parents are using their children's smartwatches to listen to teachers in the classroom. Recording or listening to private conversations is against the law in Germany without the permission of all recorded persons."

Some smartwatches are designed for children as young as four years of age. Several brands are available at online retailers, such as Amazon and Best Buy.

Why the ban? Gizmodo explained:

"Saying the technology more closely resembles a “spying device” than a toy... Last month, the European Consumer Organization (BEUC) warned that smartwatches marketed to kids were a serious threat to children’s privacy. A report published by the Norwegian Consumer Council in mid-October revealed serious flaws in several of the devices that could easily allow hackers to seize control. "

Clearly, this is another opportunity for parents to carefully research and consider smart device purchases for their family, to teach their children about privacy, and to not record persons without their permission.


The Guardian Site Reviews Documents Used By Facebook Executives To Moderate Content

Facebook logo The Guardian news site in the United Kingdom (UK) published the findings of its review of "The Facebook Files" -- a collection of documents which comprise the rules used by executives at the social site to moderate (e.g., review, approve, and delete) content posted by the site's members. Reporters at The Guardian reviewed:

"... more than 100 internal training manuals, spreadsheets and flowcharts that give unprecedented insight into the blueprints Facebook has used to moderate issues such as violence, hate speech, terrorism, pornography, racism and self-harm. There are even guidelines on match-fixing and cannibalism.

The Facebook Files give the first view of the codes and rules formulated by the site, which is under huge political pressure in Europe and the US. They illustrate difficulties faced by executives scrabbling to react to new challenges such as “revenge porn” – and the challenges for moderators, who say they are overwhelmed by the volume of work, which means they often have “just 10 seconds” to make a decision..."

The Guardian summarized what it learned about Facebook's revenge porn rules for moderators:

Revenge porn content rules found by The Guardian's review of Facebook documents

Reportedly, Facebook moderators reviewed as many as 54,000 cases in a single month related to revenge porn and "sextortion." In January of 2017, the site disabled 14,000 accounts due to this form of sexual violence. Previously, these rules were not available publicly. Findings about other rules are available at The Guardian site.

Other key findings found by The Guardian during its document review:

"One document says Facebook reviews more than 6.5m reports a week relating to potentially fake accounts – known as FNRP (fake, not real person)... Many moderators are said to have concerns about the inconsistency and peculiar nature of some of the policies. Those on sexual content, for example, are said to be the most complex and confusing... Anyone with more than 100,000 followers on a social media platform is designated as a public figure – which denies them the full protections given to private individuals..."

The social site struggles with how to handle violent language:

"Facebook’s leaked policies on subjects including violent death, images of non-sexual physical child abuse and animal cruelty show how the site tries to navigate a minefield... In one of the leaked documents, Facebook acknowledges “people use violent language to express frustration online” and feel “safe to do so” on the site. It says: “They feel that the issue won’t come back to them and they feel indifferent towards the person they are making the threats about because of the lack of empathy created by communication via devices as opposed to face to face..."

Some industry watchers in Europe doubt that Facebook can do what it has set out to accomplish, lacks sufficient staff to effectively moderate content posted by almost 2 billion users, and Facebook management should be more transparent about its content moderation rules. Others believe that Facebook and other social sites should be heavily fined "for failing to remove extremist and hate-crime material."

To learn more, The Guardian site includes at least nine articles about its review of The Facebook Files:

Collection of articles by The Guardian which review Facebook's content policies. Click to view larger version


Federal Reserve Survey of Experiences of Younger Workers

The Federal Reserve Board (FRB) recently released the results of its survey of younger workers ages 18 to 30 with data through 2015. The survey found that younger workers overall:

"... experienced higher rates of unemployment and lower rates of labor force participation than the general population for at least two decades, and the Great Recession exacerbated this phenomenon. Despite a substantial labor market recovery from 2009 through 2014, vulnerable populations—including the nation’s young adults—continue to experience higher rates of unemployment. Changes in labor market conditions, including globalization and automation, have reduced the availability of well-paid, secure jobs for less-educated persons, particularly those jobs that provide opportunity for advancement. Furthermore, data suggest that young workers entering the labor market are affected by a long-running increase in the use of “contingent” or “alternative” work arrangements, characterized by contracted, part-time, temporary, and seasonal work."

Specific findings about younger workers' attitudes:

"In 2015, the majority of young adults (61 percent) are optimistic about their future job opportunities, showing an increase in optimism from 2013 (45 percent)... the likelihood that a young adult is optimistic about future job opportunities increases with higher levels of education... young adults continue to have a strong preference for steady employment (62 percent) over higher pay (36 percent)... Among respondents who prefer steady employment, 80 percent would rather have one steady job than a stream of steady jobs for the next five years...

Most young adults are not sure how their standard of living will compare with their parents’ standard of living. Young adults with at least one parent with a bachelor’s degree (or higher) are more likely to believe their standard of living will be lower than their parents (4 percent) when compared with young adults whose parents have a high school education or less (1 percent)...

Specific findings about younger workers' experiences:

"28 percent of respondents are currently enrolled as students in a certificate or degree program. Most students are enrolled in degree programs... most undergraduate students are identified “nontraditional” because they are over age 23, enrolled in school part time, working full time, and/or financially independent. 10 percent of respondents are “non-completers,” meaning they are not currently enrolled in a certificate or degree program they started... 62 percent of respondents with post-secondary education worked while in school to finance all or part of their most recent education. 52 percent of respondents with post-secondary educational experience have parents that contributed financially to their education. 46 percent of respondents incurred debt to pay for some portion of their education or training...

41 percent of respondents believe they have the level of education and training needed for the type of job that they would like to hold in the next five years... 66 percent of young adults received information about jobs and careers during high school. And, 69 percent of young adults received such information in college...

Less than half (45 percent) of employees work in a career field that is closely related to their educational and training background... Many young adults gained early work experience during high school, college, or both. 53 percent of young adults had a paid job during high school, and 77 percent of young adults had a paid job during college..."

A key takeaway: about 30 percent of young adults did not receive information about jobs and careers in high school nor college. That seems to be an area the educational sector must improve upon.

4,135 potential respondents were contacted for the 2015 survey, and 2,035 completed surveys (49 percent response rate). FRB staff designed the survey, which was administered by GfK, an online consumer research company.

More notable statistics from the survey: about 69 percent of survey respondents have some form of paid employment, up from 60 percent in 2013. 63 percent of employees held a single full-time job during the past year, and 18 percent of employees held multiple full-time jobs during the past year. Profile information about employed younger workers:

"78 percent of employees have a permanent/long-term job... 75 percent of employees in the survey have a full-time job... Among part-time employees surveyed, 49 percent were identified as underemployed, as they are working part time because of economic conditions. Meanwhile, 42 percent of part-time employees prefer part-time work... The percent of young workers who have health insurance increased from 2013 (70 percent) to 2015 (82 percent). Likewise, the percent of young workers who received paid time off for sick leave, holidays, or both from any of their paid jobs increased from 2013 (59 percent) to 2015 (62 percent)...

As adults, 43 percent of employees have formed a new household with their immediate family (i.e., spouse/partner), and 20 percent have formed a new household alone or with a roommate..."

Self-sufficiency is important. The report found:

"... 73 percent of employees are able to cover their monthly household expenses with their household income. Meanwhile, 22 percent of employees report that they are sometimes able to cover their monthly household expenses, and 4 percent are not able to cover their monthly household expenses at all... Among employees who are not able to cover their household expenses some or all of the time, 64 percent reduce their monthly expenses to meet the challenge, 56 percent do not pay some bills, 54 percent borrow money from family, 46 percent use their credit cards, 41 percent use savings, and 16 percent borrow from friends.

A key consideration regarding self-sufficiency is the ability of a household to withstand financial disruptions. Among young workers, the ability to go without a paycheck temporarily improved between 2013 and 2015. The percent of young workers who can pay their living expenses if out of work for four weeks improved from 38 percent in 2013 to 45 percent in 2015..."

The report cited 4 policy implications to address the findings:

  1. Improve Alignment between Education and the Labor Market
  2. Increase Opportunities for Non-degree Education
  3. Provide Assistance and Protections for Workers with Alternative Work Arrangements
  4. Seek Opportunities to Improve Job Growth

There is plenty of information in the 120-page report, which is available at the FRB site and here (Adobe PDF; 1,190.2K bytes).


4 Website Operators Settle With New York State Attorney General For Illegal Tracking of Children

Earlier this month, the Attorney General for the State of New York (NYSAG) announced settlement agreements with the operators of several popular websites for the illegal online tracking of children, which violated the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). The website operators agreed to pay a total of $835,000 in fines, comply with, and implement a comprehensive set of requirements and changes.

COPPA, passed by Congress in 1998 and updated in 2013, prohibits the unauthorized collection, use, and disclosure of children’s personal information (e.g., first name, last name, e-mail address, IP address, etc.) on websites directed to children under the age of 13, including the collection of information for tracking a child’s movements across the Internet. The 2013 update expanded the list of personal information items, and prohibits covered operators from using cookies, IP addresses, and other persistent identifiers to track users across websites for most advertising purposes, amassing profiles on individual users, and serving targeted behavioral advertisements.

The NYSAG operated a program titled "Operation Child Tracker," which analyzed the most popular children’s websites for any unauthorized tracking. The analysis found that four website operators include third-party tracking on their websites -- which is prohibited by COPPA -- and failed to properly evaluate third-party companies, such as advertisers, advertising networks, and marketers. The website operators and their properties included Viacom (websites associated with Nick Jr. and Nickelodeon), Mattel (Barbie, Hot Wheels, and American Girl), JumpStart (Neopets), and Hasbro (My Little Pony, Littlest Pet Shop, and Nerf).

Regular readers of this blog are familiar with the variety of technologies and mechanisms companies have used to track consumers online: web browser cookies, “zombie cookies,” Flash cookies, “zombie e-tags,” super cookies, “zombie databases” on mobile devices, canvas fingerprinting, and augmented reality (which tracks consumers both online and in the physical world). For example, the web browser cookie is a small text file placed by a website on a user’s computer which is stored by the user’s web browser.  Every time a user visits the website, the website retrieves all cookies files stored by that website on the user’s computer. Some website operators shared the information contained in web browser cookies with third-party companies, such as marketing affiliates, advertisers, and tracking companies. This allows web browser cookies to be used to track a user’s browsing history across several websites.

All of this happens in the background without explicit notices in the web browser software, unless the user configures their web browser to provide notice and/or to delete all browser cookies stored. The other technologies represent alternative methods with more technical sophistication and stealth.

The announcement by the NYSAG described each website operator's activities:

"Viacom operates the Nick Jr. website, at www.nickjr.com, and the Nickelodeon website, at www.nick.com... The office of the Attorney General found a variety of improper third party tracking on the Nick Jr. and Nickelodeon websites. These included:

1. Many advertisers and agencies that placed advertisements on Nick Jr. and Nickelodeon websites introduced tracking technologies of third parties that routinely engage in the type of tracking, profiling, and targeted advertising prohibited by COPPA. Viacom considered several approaches to mitigate the risk of COPPA violations from these third parties, including removing adult advertising from a child-directed section of the Nick Jr. website and monitoring advertisements for unexpected tracking... However, Viacom did not timely take either approach and did not implement sufficient safeguards for its users.

2. Some visitors to the homepage of the Nick Jr. website were served behavioral advertising and tracked through a third party advertising platform Viacom used to serve advertisements. Although Viacom considered the homepage of the Nick Jr. website to be parent-directed, and thus not covered by COPPA, the homepage had content that appealed to children. Under COPPA, website operators must treat mixed audience pages as child-directed..."

Mattel logo The NYSAG also found:

"... 26 of Mattel’s websites feature content for young children, including online games, animated cartoons, and downloadable content such as posters, computer desktop wallpaper, and pages for young children to color... The office of the Attorney General found that a variety of improper third party tracking technologies were present on Mattel’s child-directed websites and sections of websites. These included:

1. Mattel deployed a tracking technology supplied by a third party data broker across its Barbie, Hot Wheels, Fisher-Price, Monster High, Ever After High, and Thomas & Friends websites. Mattel used the tracking technology for measuring website metrics, such as the number of visitors to each site, a practice permitted under COPPA. However, the tracking technology supplied by the data broker introduced many other third party tracking technologies in a process known as “piggy backing.” Many of these third parties engage in the type of tracking, profiling, and targeted advertising prohibited by COPPA.

2. A tracking technology that Mattel deployed on the e-commerce portion of the American Girl website, which is not directed to children or covered by COPPA, was inadvertently introduced onto certain child-directed webpages of the American Girl website.

3. Mattel uploaded videos to Google’s YouTube.com, a video hosting platform, and then embedded some of these videos onto the child-directed portion of several Mattel websites, including the Barbie website. When the embedded videos were played by children, it enabled Google tracking technologies, which were used to serve behavioral advertisements.

JumpStart logo Regarding JumpStart, the NYSAG found:

"... several improper third party tracking technologies were present on the Neopets website, both for logged-in users under the age of 13 and users who were not logged-in. These included:

1. JumpStart failed to configure the advertising platform used to serve ads on the Neopets website in a manner that would comply with COPPA. As a result, users under the age of 13 were served behavioral advertising and tracked through the advertising platform.

2. JumpStart integrated a Facebook plug-in into the Neopets website... Facebook uses the tracking information for serving behavioral advertising, among other things, unless the website operator notifies Facebook with a COPPA flag that the website falls is subject to COPPA. JumpStart did not notify Facebook that the Neopets website was directed to children."

Hasbro logo For Hasbro, the NYSAG found:

"... several improper third party tracking technologies were present on Hasbro’s child-directed websites and sections of websites. These included:

1. Hasbro engaged in an advertising campaign that tracked visitors to the Nerf section of Hasbro’s website in order to serve Hasbro advertisements to those same users as they visited other websites at a later time, a type of online behavioral advertising prohibited by COPPA known as “remarketing.”

2. Hasbro integrated a third-party plug-in into many of its websites, that allowed users to be tracked across websites and introduced other third parties that engaged in the type of tracking, profiling, and targeted advertising prohibited under COPPA.

It is important to note that Hasbro participated in a safe harbor program. A website operator that complies with the rules of an FTC-approved safe harbor program is deemed in compliance with COPPA. However, safe harbor programs rely on full disclosure of the operator’s practices and Hasbro failed to disclose the existence of the remarketing campaign through the Nerf website."

The terms of the settlement agreements require the website operators to:

  1. Conduct regular electronic scans for unexpected third party tracking technologies that may appear on their children’s websites. Three of the companies, Viacom, Mattel, and JumpStart will provide regular reports to the office regarding the results of the scans.
  2. Adopt procedures to evaluate third-party companies before they are introduced onto their children’s websites. the evaluation should determine whether and how the third parties collect, use, and disclose, and allow others to collect, use, and disclose, personal information from users.
  3. Provide notice to third parties that collect, use, or disclose personal information of users with information sufficient to enable the third parties to identify the websites or sections of websites that are child directed pursuant to COPPA.
  4. Update website privacy policies with either, a) information sufficient to enable parents and others to identify the websites and portions of websites that are directed to children under COPPA, or b) a means of contacting the company so that parents and others may request such information.

Kudos to the NYSAG office and staff for a comprehensive analysis and enforcement to protect children's online privacy. This type of analysis and enforcement is critical as companies introduce more Internet-connected toys and products classified as part of the Internet of Things (ioT).


Royal Caribbean's Allure Of The Seas: Built For Families

Recently, my family and I sailed on Royal Caribbean cruise line's Allure of the Seas mega-ship from Fort Lauderdale, Florida to destinations in the Caribbean: St, Kitts, St. Thomas (USVI), and Nassau, Bahamas. This was our 26th cruise, so my wife and I have sailed on a variety of cruise lines and ships to many places around the planet. For this 7-night sailing, our daughter, son-in-law, grandchildren (ages 10 and 8), and in-laws joined us.

Our travel agent had arranged TSA Pre-Check boarding for our JetBlue flights, which made travel stress-free and easier. If you travel frequently, the fees for TSA Pre-Check are a no-brainer. We arrived in Fort Lauderdale three days before the ship's departure. We usually arrive early so any flight delays (due to weather or equipment) don't cause us to miss the cruise ship's departure. Experienced travelers know that if you miss the ship's departure, it is the passenger's responsibility (and cost) to catch up with the ship in the next port.

Early arrival in Florida also provided plenty of time to relax poolside at the hotel, explore the departure city, and sample several nearby restaurants. The Crowne Plaza Fort lauderdale Airport/Cruise featured comfortable beds, spacious rooms, and a large, relaxing pool. The main draw for us was the shuttles provided by the hotel both from the airport and to the cruise port.

The boarding process at Port Everglades, the cruise terminal in Fort Lauderdale, was well-organized and easy. We checked our luggage with the porters, and waited for our daughter and her family. When they arrived, we all entered the check-in line, passed through security, and boarded the ship. Our stateroom was ready, so we left our carry-on bags there and explored the ship. We booked an inside stateroom for this sailing, since we expected to spend very little time thee. On prior sailings we've booked outside staterooms (with a larger window) or staterooms with balconies.

The Allure OTS is a mega-ship in the truest definition. At 222,282 tons, it was the largest cruise ship for six years until Royal Caribbean's Harmony of the Seas debuted in May, 2016. Our sailing on July 24 included 6,464 passengers, of which about 1,700 were children under the age of 16. It offers 25 different dining options with a crew of 2,384. Besides the standard dining rooms, the ship offers the Chops Grille American steakhouse, Sabor Taqueria and Tequila Bar, Izumi Hibachi and Sushi, Giovanni's Table Italian restaurant, Starbucks, and a Johnny Rockets hamburger shop.

Royal Promenade. Allure of the Seas. Click to view larger version The ship includes seven "neighborhoods" or areas. Situated indoors and length-wise the cruise ship, the Royal Promenade (Deck 5) features several retail stores, art gallery, a Champagne bar, restaurants, nightclubs with live music, duty-free stores, comedy club, karaoke bar, and the customer service desk. You'll often see children posing for photos with characters from "Shrek," "Madagascar," and other animation films produced by DreamWorks Animation.

View of Carousel. Allure of the Seas. July 2016. Click to view larger version The outdoor Boardwalk (Deck 6), modeled after Coney Island amusement area in New York City, features several retail shops, ice cream and pizza, casual-dining options, a merry-go-round, and the AquaTheatre. I've never seen a merry-go-round on a cruise ship before, and I doubt you have either.

The Pool & Sports Zone (Deck 15) features the H20 Zone water park, several swimming pools, several hot-tubs that easily seat 14 persons each, plenty of deck space with umbrellas to enjoy the sun, several bars for adult refreshments, and guest services to get beach towels. Beach towels are free, but the cruise line will charge you if you don't return it. Also on Deck 15 is the full-size basketball court, miniature golf course, two Flow-Rider surf simulators, and an 82-foot long Zip Line. Lessons are available for the surf simulators.

View of Central Park. Allure of the Seas. July 2016. Click to view larger version Outfitted with 60 trees and about 12,000 plants, the Central Park (Deck 8) is an outdoor park with recorded birds chirping, upscale dining options, shady spots to relax at, and access to the Rising Tide bar. Like an elevator, this bar for adults moves between decks 5 and 8 on a daily schedule. I've never seen a park before on a cruise ship. It is definitely a must-see neighborhood. Since I practice Tai Chi, I asked if there were classes on board. A crew member replied that a group practiced in Central Park at 6:00 am. I thanked her for the tip, and didn't join that group. I was on vacation and rising early was not a priority.

The Vitality Sea Spa & Fitness Center (Deck 6); far larger than fitness centers on other cruise ships, covered two decks and featured plenty of treadmills and exercise equipment. Like other cruise ships, passengers can get their hair done in the salon for formal dinner nights, or experience a a relaxing massage (e.g., full-body,, detox, hot stone, bamboo, etc.) in the spa. There is easy access from the fitness center to the Jogging Track (2.4 laps = 1 mile). You can run, jog, or walk comfortably out of the wind and in the shade.

Flow Rider. Allure of the Seas. Click to view larger version A large portion of the ship is dedicated to children and families. This includes activities in the Adventure Ocean day-camp program, the H2O Zone water park, two 43-foot high rock-climbing walls, two Flow-Rider surf simulators, an 82-foot long Zip Line, the merry-go-round, a 3-D movie theater, a miniature golf course, a full-sized basketball court, an ice-skating rink with shows and open skating, and video arcade. The day camp program provides parents with plenty of opportunities for "couple's time."

For adults, there are several nightclubs with adult entertainment, the Solarium and Solarium Bar (decks 15 and 16), the Casino Royale (Deck 4), and numerous upscale dining options. The Allure Of the Seas truly offers plenty of activities for everyone. If you try to do it all, then you'll probably need a vacation to recover from your cruise vacation.

Rock Climbing Wall. Allure of the Seas. Click to view larger version The Allure of the Seas was refurbished in May, 2015. Several shops, public areas, and the WiFI were upgraded. Royal Caribbean's investment showed. My Internet connection was consistently very fast throughout the entire voyage; unlike other ships. If you seek quiet places on the ship (without music, noise or recorded birds chirping), there are several, including the Card Room (Deck 14), Library (Deck 11), and the Solarium (Decks 15 and 16). If you seek a place away from children, the Solarium is a good choice.

Like other Royal Caribbean cruise ships, the next day's activities are listed in the daily Cruise Compass newsletter, delivered each evening to your stateroom. This newsletter is a handy tool. It also lists discounts and sales in the on-board retail stores, hours of operation of the restaurants and dining options, movies in the cinemas, and the live entertainment daily in the theaters and nightclubs.

Royal Caribbean encourages passengers to make your reservations for dining, shows, and nightclub music performances before you sail. This is one of several new trends in cruise vacations. Many people like it. I don't. It used to be that you could arrive early for any show and walk right in. Now, walk-ins must wait until all guests with reservations are seated first. For me, this mandatory reservations system removes the spontaneity and freedom of deciding what to do based upon how you feel at that moment.

H2O Zone water park. Allure of the Seas. Click to view larger version Overall, I give the Allure of the Seas excellent marks. The ride was very smooth, and most of the time you didn't know you were at sea on a cruise ship. The ship's layout and venues are well organized, and the crew is very professional. Most of the time, I did not realize I was on a ship with 6,464 passengers. About the only time the ship felt crowded was in the Promenade. When the Promenade was crowded, it looked and felt like any land-based shopping mall between Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. I like to go on cruises to get away from land-based attractions, not replicate them.

If you have sailed on the Allure of the Seas, what was your experience? Which neighborhood on the ship was your favorite?


Pokemon Go: The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly

Pokemon Go mobile game image. Click to view larger version The game's popularity proliferated after a July 6 launch in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States: 7.5 million downloads during its first week; 50 million downloads from Google Play during its first month; and it was WikiPedia's most visited article by mid-July. (View the game's Wikipedia pageviews.) Everyone noticed. Early in July, a former advertising coworker joked on Facebook:

" 'How about we partner with Pokemon Go?' -- Said in every office at every agency for every client this morning."

Probably. The augmented-reality (AR) mobile game requires players to travel real-life streets to find and capture digital characters superimposed on locations and displayed on the screens of players' phones. The game's screens also display PokeStops and gyms, locations superimposed on real-life landmarks. The CNN video at the end of this blog post provides a good summary. The Apple iTunes site explains important game details:

"Search far and wide for Pokémon and items: Certain Pokémon appear near their native environment—look for Water-type Pokémon by lakes and oceans. Visit PokéStops, found at interesting places like museums, art installations, historical markers, and monuments, to stock up on Poké Balls and helpful items... As you level up, you’ll be able to catch more-powerful Pokémon to complete your Pokédex. You can add to your collection by hatching Pokémon Eggs based on the distances you walk... Take on Gym battles and defend your Gym: As your Charmander evolves to Charmeleon and then Charizard, you can battle together to defeat a Gym and assign your Pokémon to defend it against all comers."

Pokemon Go mobile game image with character. Click to view larger version For many players, Pokemon Go has been a nostalgic return to their youth when Pokemon existed in cartoons, video games, and board-games. Some experts have speculated that the game's popularity, as measured by daily active users, may have peaked in the United States.

What do we know so far about the AR game? What has happened since the game's launch? What happens when a mobile fantasy game combines real-life locations? Are non-players affected? What might be the implications for future AR games? I looked for answers, found plenty, and organized my findings into good, bad, and ugly categories -- with apologies to Mr. Leone and Mr. Eastwood.

The Good

Niantic Labs developed the game for Apple iOS and Android devices. Earlier this month, the game debuted in Latin America. Reviewers have cited the game's addictive qualities:

"... Pokemon Go’s game designers have perfectly executed on the “Hook Model” — a framework for gamification and getting users to come back again and again and again."

Advocates have said that the game has gotten gamers off of their couches (e.g., butts) and out into the real world to get exercise, meet people, and explore locations they probably wouldn't have visited otherwise. Sounds good.

Within the game, PokeStops and gyms are located in publicly-accessible locations, such as theme parks, gardens, and museums. This has increased the sales at some nearby, small businesses. IGN reported on July 21:

"Bok Tower Gardens, a “contemplative garden” and National Historic Landmark located in Lake Wales, Fl, is saturated with PokeStops. The non-profit recorded a 10 to 15 percent increase in ticket sales during the first week of Pokemon Go’s release... So far, the only way to become a PokeStop or gym is to send in a request to Niantic Labs, but it isn't likely to be accepted unless the location is one of cultural significance or in a Pokemon Go deadzone."

The Twitter account Pokemon Archaeology catalogs Pokemon sightings in historic locations. The National Park Service (NPS) has welcomed gamers in many of its parks, but not at memorial sites. Some National Parks have featured programs with the game. Earlier this month, the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore offered a new program called "Pokemon Hunt:"

"... to connect “Pokemon Go!” with real-world flora and fauna... This interactive, ranger-guided walk will allow visitors to uncover the creatures, both physical and virtual, that can be found within the National Lakeshore. They will learn how these creatures do or do not fit in with the rest of the environment, and what can be done to help them thrive. At the end of the program, visitors will be able to design their own Pokemon. “Trainers” of all ages are welcome."

This summer, the NPS celebrates 100 years of operations. Gamers should check the NPS site to learn about any discounts and programs before visiting a park.

Some local businesses near colleges and universities experienced increased sales from gamers. Minnesota Daily reported:

"Many local Minneapolis businesses have considered, or implemented, special promotions to attract more mobile-gamers. Last week, Sencha Tea Bar in Stadium Village released three special shakes in correspondence with the three color teams of the game — red, yellow and blue — said store manager Josh Suwaratana. Suwaratana said the store does special shakes for other occasions, so the Pokemon shakes weren’t anything out of the ordinary... Sencha is also located next to a Pokestop — a real-life location where players can obtain items in the game. Suwaratana said the proximity to the Pokestop has helped business attract players."

The BBC News reported that the game helped an autistic teenager. Autism Speaks published this perspective by a psychologist:

"... I would encourage parents to seize the opportunity for their children to capitalize on this gaming experience while at the park or when running errands. My advice is not to judge this new gaming experience as all bad and in need of limits. Rather let’s embrace a step toward video games and virtual reality that may one day be tailored to inspiring those we love with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to leave the house and receive points/rewards/tokens for gathering information from other people they encounter in the store, at work, or at a place of leisure. To me that sounds an awful lot like what I have been trying to get them to do by learning social skills in my office each week..."

To focus the world's attention upon the impacts to citizens and children, activists have added Pokemon characters to images from war zones. C/Net reported on July 26 that Khaled Akil, a Syrian artist:

"... has taken Pokemon Go creatures and Photoshopped them into pictures of his war-torn homeland, presenting a stark contrast between the whimsy of the augmented-reality game and the sobering day-to-day realities of war... In one image, a young boy walks his bike through a street lined by bombed-out buildings, a Vaporeon by his side. In another, a Pikachu rests on a block of rubble next to a burning car... the activist group Revolutionary Forces of Syria Media Office has been tweeting poignant photos of kids holding up printouts of popular Pokemon creatures, along with their locations, which are identified as being near areas of heavy fighting, and the words 'save me'..."

To view photos, follow the links in the C/Net article to Akil's website and Instagram account.

The Niantic Terms of Service policy clearly encourages safe game play and describes players' responsibilities:

"During game play, please be aware of your surroundings and play safely. You agree that your use of the App and play of the game is at your own risk, and it is your responsibility to maintain such health, liability, hazard, personal injury, medical, life, and other insurance policies as you deem reasonably necessary for any injuries that you may incur while using the Services. You also agree not to use the App to violate any applicable law, rule, or regulation (including but not limited to the laws of trespass) or the Trainer Guidelines, and you agree not to encourage or enable any other individual to violate any applicable law, rule, or regulation or the Trainer Guidelines. Without limiting the foregoing, you agree that in conjunction with your use of the App you will not inflict emotional distress on other people, will not humiliate other people (publicly or otherwise), will not assault or threaten other people, will not enter onto private property without permission, will not impersonate any other person or misrepresent your affiliation, title, or authority, and will not otherwise engage in any activity that may result in injury, death, property damage, and/or liability of any kind."

The "Conduct, General Prohibitions, and Niantic’s Enforcement Rights" section of the policy also lists the responsibilities of players, including players will not:

"... trespass, or in any manner attempt to gain or gain access to any property or location where you do not have a right or permission to be..."

So, it is important for players to know their responsibilities. Do they? Keep reading.

The Bad

Foot traffic by gamers in public parks hasn't been all good. Some gamers have ignored local laws and ordinances. WPRI in Providence, Rhode Island reported:

"Members of the East Providence Police Department said “Pokemon Go” has drawn huge crowds of people to local parks after hours... Officers say they have responded to several calls about the crowds. “They are very peaceful, they’re not causing problems, but it is in a public area – in public parks – and people who live in those areas do deserve to have their rest at night,” said Maj. William Nebus of the East Providence Police Department. “Our parks do close at 9 p.m. and just to have 200 people lurking in overnight hours is not peaceful to the residents.”

Law enforcement in Michigan ticketed players with misdemeanors after late-night, 12:30 a.m. game play. Nearby property owners have found players intrusive. There are two implications. First, it's important for players to understand and comply with local town ordinances and hour restrictions. Second, taxpayers will likely absorb the additional costs of park maintenance, clean-up, and law enforcement patrols to address the increased foot traffic in local parks.

It's critical for players to remain alert. In somewhat weird news, a gamer kept playing after being stabbed by a mugger. And a North-Texas teenager was bitten by a venomous snake while playing. In Missouri, criminals staked out known PokeStops and robbed players. A gamer in Riverton, Wyoming found a dead body.

While some gamers play on foot, others drive their vehicles. As you've probably guessed, there have been auto accidents. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported:

"A driver, distracted by a Squirtle or a Zubat, caught a tree, instead of a Pokemon. That collision occurred last month in Auburn, N.Y., near Syracuse. A few days later, a 28-year-old driver on a highway near Seattle told officials he was focused on the hunt for Pikachu when he ran into the rear end of a Chevrolet. Another distracted driver in Baltimore smashed into a police car. A parked police car."

Like any game, some gamers play by the rules while others don't. An entertaining video listing the ways players cheat has more than 6.7 million views. Niantic highlighted its policy toward cheaters:

"Your account was permanently terminated for violations of the Pokémon GO Terms of Service. This includes, but is not limited to: falsifying your location, using emulators, modified or unofficial software and/or accessing Pokémon GO clients or backends in an unauthorized manner including through the use of third party software."

Soon after the game's debut, privacy risks were discovered:

"Security researcher Adam Reeve noted that when some users sign into Pokemon Go through Google on Apple devices, they effectively give the game and its developer full access to their Google account; this means, that at least in theory, Niantic... can access players' Gmail-based email, Google Drive based files, photos and videos stored in Google Photos, and any other content within their Google accounts. From a technical perspective, Niantic could potentially send emails on your behalf, or copy and distribute your photos. This is obviously concerning. Perhaps even scarier - and more eye-opening - is that users are accepting such permissions en masse without regard for the risks."

Since then, Niantic and the Pokemon Company notified Engadget that it fixed the bug in a subsequent update. Regardless, the Offensive Privacy blog warned players who have signed up using their Google credentials:

"... to review Google's guide on controlling and revoking app access to your account and check your account to see what permissions the game has. If it still has full access to your Google account, you can simply revoke access, then sign-in to the game again using your Google account. Your data will be safe and you can ensure your Google account is safe as well."

The Offensive Privacy blog offered privacy tips given the game's usage of smartphone cameras:

"While it's a bit outlandish to think that Niantic collects the video streams from every device, it is always a possibility that cannot be completely ruled out. This means anything your camera sees could, in theory, be stored by Niantic... I suggest some common sense tactics that apply to all cameras and video streams when using the AR mode of the game: 1) Never allow the camera to see personal ID such as your license, passport, or other sensitive document; 2) Never let the camera see a license plate or government building. This is especially true for those working in high-security environments; and 3) Avoid letting the camera see street signs, your house, house numbers, etc. It's also possible that metadata could be embedded in the image and made available if the image is shared publicly..."

Regular readers of this blog are already familiar with the privacy issues associated with metadata collection. Some players may be surprised that tips to maintain privacy while playing requires effort.

Yes, security researchers have already found malware embedded in a rogue version of the Pokemon Go app. So, shop wisely at reputable sites and follow these tips to avoid the malware.

One measure of popularity are parodies. There is a porn parody of the game titled, "Poke-mon Ho!" Depending upon your lifestyle, you might categorize this as "good." Yes, the parody reportedly is NSFW. No, I haven't seen it.

The Ugly

Some property owners view the game as inappropriate for their locations. CNN Reported in July:

"The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and Arlington National Cemetery, both in Washington, DC area, have both issued appeals for players to avoid hunting Pokemon on their sites. "Playing Pokemon Go in a memorial dedicated to the victims of Nazism is extremely inappropriate," said Andy Hollinger, director of communications at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., in a statement sent to CNNMoney. "We are attempting to have the Museum removed from the game," the statement said... Pokemon Go has a link set up for people to report sensitive locations and contact on its website... According to a statement from The Pokemon Company International and Niantic -- the creators of Pokemon Go -- Pokestops and gyms in the app are found at publicly accessible places. That includes historical markers, public art installations, museums, monuments -- and apparently churches."

I see two problems with the approach the game's developers used. First, the approach seems to have treated all public spaces the same, without considering the unique needs of cemeteries, memorials, and similar places. Game-play isn't appropriate everywhere. Second, Niantic's approach automatically included real-life locations as PokeStops and gyms without first obtaining the property owners' permissions. This approach places the burden on property owners (who aren't players nor participants) to opt-out of the game. Not good. Maybe this was a slick attempt to force property owners to participate. Not good.

Some players have wandered onto nearby private properties. ComputerWorld reported on August 2:

"Jeffrey Marder, a resident of West Orange, N.J., found in the days after the release of the successful augmented reality game Pokémon Go, that strangers, phone in hand, had begun lingering outside his home. At least five of them knocked on Marder’s door and asked for access to his backyard to catch and add to their virtual collections of the Pokémon images, superimposed over the real world, that the game developer had placed at the residence without his permission."

Marder is part of a lawsuit alleging that the game included locations on private properties, without the owners' permissions. The Click on Detroit site reported on August 15:

"Scott Dodich and Jayme Gotts-Dodich, of St. Clair Shores, filed a class action lawsuit against Niantic, The Pokemon Company and Nintendo... The couple lives on a private cul-de-sac and alleges that over several weeks, Pokemon Go players parked their vehicles on their street and blocked driveways. The couple also alleges that players trespassed on lawns, trampled landscaping and peered into windows. The complaint also alleges that when Jayme Gotts-Dodich asked a Pokemon Go player to leave her property, the player told her to “shut up b****, or else... The suit alleges that the intentional, unauthorized placement of Pokestops and Pokemon gyms on or near private property constitutes a continuing invasion of use and enjoyment. Due to the ignored repeated requests for removal, the couple believes that Niantic is liable for nuisance and that all defendants have been unjustly enriched.”

If a disagreement arises between Niantic and a player, that may not be resolved in court in front of a jury of the gamer's peers. The Niantic Terms of Service policy strips gamers of that right:

"ARBITRATION NOTICE: EXCEPT IF YOU OPT OUT AND EXCEPT FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF DISPUTES DESCRIBED IN THE “AGREEMENT TO ARBITRATE” SECTION BELOW, YOU AGREE THAT DISPUTES BETWEEN YOU AND NIANTIC WILL BE RESOLVED BY BINDING, INDIVIDUAL ARBITRATION, AND YOU ARE WAIVING YOUR RIGHT TO A TRIAL BY JURY OR TO PARTICIPATE AS A PLAINTIFF OR CLASS MEMBER IN ANY PURPORTED CLASS ACTION OR REPRESENTATIVE PROCEEDING."

To opt out of binding arbitration, players must do so within 30 days of sign up. This BoingBong explained how to opt out, and the associated issues. Of course, players should read all game policies in their entirety before sign up. (You did, right?) Regular readers of this blog are familiar with the issues with binding arbitration.

The Future

Given the success so far of Pokemon Go, it seems wise to expect copycats. The Motely Fool speculated:

"Pokemon Go has added a new layer of excitement to a day at Disney World for those who seek that variety of enchantment. Disney is benefiting from the craze, even as non-players shake their heads while swerving around distracted gamers. This also could and should be just the beginning. It's only a matter of time before it rolls out its own augmented-reality app... A Disney app likely also wouldn't include a Pokemon-like battle element, at least not in terms of pitting Pluto against Yoda in combat. However, the Disney gym equivalent could be mini-game stations offering everything from speed Disney trivia matches to Virtual Magic Kingdom-type competitions... There are more than 200 Disney Store locations scattered across North America, and more than 120 overseas. These stores can also serve as character-collecting hubs, giving players a local connection for special events. It would also keep interest active outside of theme park visits..."

You can bet we'll see many more AR games with fantasy or fictional characters; probably with co-marketing agreements between AR games, movies, fast-food restaurants, toy stores, and the few remaining shopping malls. Experts estimate the global AR market to be $117.4 billion by 2022.

It's not just fantasy characters. Experts have estimated the augmented reality and virtual reality market within healthcare to be $2.54 billion by 2020. Hopefully, more games (and other services) will offer in their policies opt-out mechanisms from restrictive binding arbitration clauses.

What are your opinions of Pokemon Go? Of AR games? What advantages and disadvantages have you found? Does the good outweigh the bad?


Social Networking Sites With The Largest Number of News Users

Recently, some friends and I were discussing the wisdom of getting your news from social networking websites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, Youtube, LinkedIn, etc.) instead of directly from news media sites. Apparently, many consumers get their news from such sites.

The Pew Research Center reported that most adults in the United States, 62 percent, get their news from social networking sites. The corresponding statistic in 2012 was 49 percent. Fewer social media site users get their news from other platforms: local television (46 percent), cable TV (31 percent), nightly network TV (30 percent), news websites/apps (28 percent), radio (25 percent), and print newspapers (20 percent). 

Pew analyzed which social networking sites were used the most for news, and whether consumers used multiple sites to obtain news. The Pew Research Center found:

"Two-thirds of Facebook users (66 percent) get news on the site, nearly six-in-ten Twitter users (59 percent) get news on Twitter, and seven-in-ten Reddit users get news on that platform. On Tumblr, the figure sits at 31 percent..."

The corresponding statistics are 23 percent for Instagram, 21 percent for Youtube, 19 percent for LinkedIn, and 17 percent at Snapchat. The implications:

"Facebook is by far the largest social networking site, reaching 67% of U.S. adults. The two-thirds of Facebook users who get news there, then, amount to 44% of the general population. YouTube has the next greatest reach in terms of general usage, at 48% of U.S. adults. But only about a fifth of its users get news there, which amounts to 10% of the adult population. That puts it on par with Twitter, which has a smaller user base (16% of U.S. adults) but a larger portion getting news there."

About audience overlap, Pew found that most people (64 percent) get their news from one social media site. 26 percent get their news from two social media sites, and 10 percent get their news from three social media sites. Pew also found that more users at Reddit, Twitter, and LinkedIn seek out news versus stumbling across it by accident:

  Percent of news users of each
site who mostly get news online
Social Networking Site While doing
other things
Because they're
looking for it
Instagram 63 37
Facebook 62 38
Youtube 58 41
LinkedIn 46 51
Twitter 45 54
Reddit 42 55

Who are the news users at the five largest social sites with news users? The users vary by site:

"... while there is some crossover, each site appeals to a somewhat different group. Instagram news consumers stand out from other groups as more likely to be non-white, young and, for all but Facebook, female. LinkedIn news consumers are more likely to have a college degree than news users of the other four platforms; Twitter news users are the second most likely."

The demographic data:

Pew-social-news-users

Some of you are probably wondering about Google+ and Pinterest. Pew removed three social media sites because:

"... Pinterest, which has been shown to have a small portion of users who use it for news; Myspace, which has largely transitioned to a music site; and Google+, which through its recent transformations is being phased out as a social networking site."

The survey was conducted from January 12 to February 8, 2016 and included 4,654 respondents (4,339 by web and 315 by mail). The methodology included a randomly-selected subset of U.S. adults (6,301 total web-based persons and 474 total mail persons.


Safer Internet Day: Do Your Part

Safer Internet Day 2016 logo Today is Safer Internet Day (SID) #SID2016. This event occurs every year in February to promote safer and more responsible use of online technology and mobile phones, especially among children. This year's theme is:

"Play your part for a better Internet"

There are events in 100 countries worldwide. The European Commission’s Safer Internet Programme started the event, which has continued under the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF). This is the 13th annual event. According to its press release:

"Last year’s celebrations saw more than 19,000 schools and 28 million people involved in SID actions across Europe, while over 60 million people were reached worldwide..."

Hans Martens, Digital Citizenship Programme Manager at European Schoolnet and Coordinator of the Insafe Network said:

“The theme of ‘Play your part for a better internet’ truly reflects how stakeholders from across the world can and should work together to build a trusted digital environment for all. This approach is at the core of the Better Internet for Kids agenda, and we look forward to seeing many exciting onitiatives and collaborations, both on the day of SID itself and beyond."

Sophos, a security firm, described six safety tips for families. That includes learning to spot phishing scams to avoid password-stealing computer viruses and ransomware. Children need to learn how to create strong passwords, and never use these weak passwords. Read about several SID events in California, including teens brainstorming ways to fight online bullying and teens helping adults.

To learn more, watch the video below and then visit SaferInternetDay.org for events in your country.

Or, watch the video on Youtube.


Membership On Social Networking Sites Requires Diligence

Facebook logo Recently, a friend posted this message on Facebook:

"I need advice. I looked in my Facebook notifications and received a notification that someone I don't even know shared my post. I looked at the post on this person's timeline and it has a picture of my female cousin and it has me tagged with her and a caption that she is my wifey with a little wedding ring icon. What??!! What's going on?"

My response with advice:

  1. Review your list of friends and delete people you don't know,
  2. Review the privacy settings on your account. You can set them to provide notice when anyone tags you in a photo. Along with that notice you can approve or decline each photo-tag request,
  3. Go to the existing, offending photos and remove that tag with your name,
  4. Contact offline the person that tagged you in the photo to verify that it was indeed that person. Sometimes, spammers or criminals create bogus accounts pretending to be a friend so they can access your account and steal personal information.
  5. When you contact that person offline, you can ask them not to tag you in any future photos. You have that right. It's your image. If he/she complies, fine. If not, delete them from your friends list,
  6. Make sure all of your posts have the "Friends Only" setting. Facebook will often inherit the "Public" setting on re-posts, which opens you to spammers, criminals, and trolls,
  7. Understand the issues associated with facial-recognition software on Facebook. Zuckerberg and the executives at Facebook have implemented a strategy of "friction-less sharing." That's great for Facebook and not necessarily good for you,
  8. Don't accept new Friend Requests from people you don't know. Finally,
  9. Realize that your information on Facebook is only secure as your friend with the weakest security settings in his/her profile, or none. Those persons probably violate #6.

So, maintaining a presence with privacy on social networking sites requires diligence. If you're not up to the task or don't want to do it, then don't join that social networking site (or delete your account on an existing site). What would you recommend?